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INTERNATIONAL TROPICAL TIMBER AGREEMENT, 1994

International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO)
International Organizations Center, 5th Floor
Pacifico-Yokohama, 1-1-1, Minato-Mirai
Nishi-ku, Yokohama 220, Japan
July 1992

-------------------------------------------------------------

CONTENTS

PREAMBLE

CHAPTER I. OBJECTIVES

	 1. Objectives

CHAPTER II. DEFINITIONS

	 2. Definitions

CHAPTER III. ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION

	 3. Headquarters and structure of the International 
Tropical Timber
	Organization
	 4. Membership in the Organization
	 5. Membership by intergovernmental organizations

CHAPTER IV. INTERNATIONAL TROPICAL TIMBER COUNCIL

	 6. Composition of the International Tropical Timber 
Council
	 7. Powers and functions of the Council
	 8. Chairman and Vice-Chairman of the Council
	 9. Sessions of the Council
	10. Distribution of votes
	11. Voting procedure of the Council
	12. Decisions and recommendations of the Council
	13. Quorum for the Council
	14. Cooperation and coordination with other 
organizations
	15. Admission of observers
	16. Executive Director and staff

CHAPTER V. PRIVILEGES AND IMMUNITIES

	17. Privileges and immunities

CHAPTER VI. FINANCE

	18. Financial accounts
	19. Administrative Account
	20. Special Account
	21. The Bali Partnership Fund
	22. Forms of payment
	23. Audit and publication of accounts

CHAPTER VII. OPERATIONAL ACTIVITIES

	24 Policy work of the Organization
	25. Project activities of the Organization
	26. Establishment of Committees
	27. Functions of the Committees

CHAPTER VIII. RELATIONSHIP WITH THE COMMON FUND FOR 
COMMODITIES

	28. Relationship with the Common Fund for Commodities

CHAPTER IX. STATISTICS, STUDIES AND INFORMATION

	29. Statistics, studies and information
	30. Annual report and review

CHAPTER X. Miscellaneous

	31. Complaints and disputes
	32. General obligations of members
	33. Relief from obligations
	34. Differential and remedial measures and special 
measures
	35. Review
	36. Non-discrimination

CHAPTER XI. FINAL PROVISIONS

	37. Depositary
	38. Signature, ratification, acceptance and approval
	39. Accession
	40. Notification of provisional application
	41. Entry into force
	42. Amendments
43. Withdrawal
	44. Exclusion
	45. Settlement of accounts with withdrawing or excluded 
members or members unable to accept an amendment
	46. Duration, extension and termination
	47. Reservations
	48. Supplementary and transitional provisions

ANNEXES

	A. List of producing countries with tropical forest 
resources and/or net exporters of tropical timber in volume 
terms, and allocation of votes for the purposes of article 41
	B. List of consuming countries and allocation of votes 
for the purposes of article 41.


Preamble

The Parties to this Agreement,

Recalling the Declaration and the Programme of Action on the 
Establishment of a New International Economic Order; the 
Integrated Programme for Commodities; the New Partnership for 
Development: the Cartagena Commitment and the relevant 
objectives contained in the Spirit of Cartagena,

Recalling the International Tropical Timber Agreement, 1983, 
and recognizing the work of the International Tropical Timber 
Organization and its achievements since its inception, 
including a strategy for achieving international trade in 
tropical timber from sustainably managed sources,

Recalling further the Rio Declaration on Environment and 
Development, the Non-Legally Binding Authoritative Statement 
of Principles for a Global Consensus on the Management, 
Conservation and Sustainable Development of all Types of 
Forests, and the relevant Chapters of Agenda 21 as adopted by 
the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development 
in June 1992, in Rio de Janeiro; the United Nations Framework 
Convention on Climate Change; and the Convention on 
Biological Diversity,

Recognizing the importance of timber to the economies of 
countries with timber producing forests,

Further recognizing the need to promote and apply comparable 
and appropriate guidelines and criteria for the management, 
conservation and sustainable development of all types of 
timber producing forests,

Taking into account the linkages of tropical timber trade and 
the international timber market and the need for taking a 
global perspective in order to improve transparency in the 
international timber market,

Noting the commitment of all members, made in Bali, 
Indonesia, in May 1990, to achieve exports of tropical timber 
products from sustainably managed sources by the year 2000 
and recognizing Principle 10 of the Non-Legally Binding 
Authoritative Statement of Principles for a Global Consensus 
on the Management, Conservation and Sustainable Development 
of all Types of Forests which states that new and additional 
financial resources should be provided to developing 
countries to enable them to sustainably manage, conserve and 
develop their forests, including through afforestation, 
reforestation and combating deforestation and forest and land 
degradation,

Noting also the statement of commitment to maintain, or 
achieve by the year 2000, the sustainable management of their 
respective forests made by consuming members who are parties 
to the International Tropical Timber Agreement, 1983 at the 
fourth session of the United Nations Conference for the 
Negotiation of a successor agreement to the International 
Tropical Timber Agreement, 1983 in Geneva on the 21 January 
1994,

Desiring to strengthen the framework of international 
cooperation and policy development between members in finding 
solutions to the problems facing the tropical timber economy,

Have agreed as follows:



CHAPTER I. OBJECTIVES

Article 1
Objectives

Recognizing the sovereignty of members over their natural 
resources, as defined in Principle 1 (a) of the Non-Legally 
Binding Authoritative Statement of Principles for a Global 
Consensus on the Management, Conservation and Sustainable 
Development of all Types of Forests, the objectives of the 
International Tropical Timber Agreement, 1994 (hereinafter 
referred to as "this Agreement") are:

(a) To provide an effective framework for consultation, 
international cooperation and policy development among all 
members with regard to all relevant aspects of the world 
timber economy;

(b) To provide a forum for consultation to promote non-
discriminatory timber trade practices;

(c) To contribute to the process of sustainable development;

(d) To enhance the capacity of members to implement a 
strategy for achieving exports of tropical timber and timber 
products from sustainably managed sources by the year 2000;

(e) To promote the expansion and diversification of 
international trade in tropical timber from sustainable 
sources by improving the structural conditions in 
international markets, by taking into account, on the one 
hand, a long term increase in consumption and continuity of 
supplies, and, on the other, prices which reflect the costs 
of sustainable forest management and which are remunerative 
and equitable for members, and the improvement of market 
access;

(f) To promote and support research and development with a 
view to improving forest management and efficiency of wood 
utilization as well as increasing the capacity to conserve 
and enhance other forest values in timber producing tropical 
forests;

(g) To develop and contribute towards mechanisms for the 
provision of new and additional financial resources and 
expertise needed to enhance the capacity of producing members 
to attain the objectives of this Agreement;

(h) To improve market intelligence with a view to ensuring 
greater transparency in the international timber market, 
including the gathering, compilation, and dissemination of 
trade related data, including data related to species being 
traded;

(i) To promote increased and further processing of tropical 
timber from sustainable sources in producing member countries 
with a view to promoting their industrialization and thereby 
increasing their employment opportunities and export 
earnings;

(j) To encourage members to support and develop industrial 
tropical timber reforestation and forest management 
activities as well as rehabilitation of degraded forest land, 
with due regard for the interests of local communities 
dependent on forest resourc
es;

(k) To improve marketing and distribution of tropical timber 
exports from sustainably managed sources;

(l) To encourage members to develop national policies aimed 
at sustainable utilization and conservation of timber 
producing forests and their genetic resources and at 
maintaining the ecological balance in the regions concerned, 
in the context of tropical timber trade;

(m) To promote the access to, and transfer of, technologies 
and technical cooperation to implement the objectives of this 
Agreement, including on concessional and preferential terms 
and conditions, as mutually agreed; and

(n) To encourage information-sharing on the international 
timber market.



CHAPTER II. DEFINITIONS

Article 2
Definitions

For the purposes of this Agreement:

(1) "Tropical timber" means non-coniferous tropical wood for 
industrial uses, which grows or is produced in the countries 
situated between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of 
Capricorn. The term covers logs, sawn wood, veneer sheets and 
plywood. Plywood which includes in some measure conifers of 
tropical origin shall also be covered by this definition;

(2) "Further processing" means the transformation of logs 
into primary wood products, semi-finished and finished 
products made wholly or almost wholly of tropical timber;

(3) "Member" means a Government or an intergovernmental 
organization referred to in article 5 which has consented to 
be bound by this Agreement whether it is in force 
provisionally or definitively;

(4) "Producing member" means any country with tropical forest 
resources and/or a net exporter of tropical timber in volume 
terms which is listed in annex A and which becomes a party to 
this Agreement, or any country with tropical forest resources 
and/or a net exporter of tropical timber in volume terms 
which is not so listed and which becomes a party to this 
Agreement and which the Council, with the consent of that 
country, declares to be a producing member;

(5) "Consuming member" means any country listed in annex B 
which becomes a party to this Agreement, or any country not 
so listed which becomes a party to this Agreement and which 
the Council, with the consent of that country, declares to be 
a consuming member;

(6) "Organization" means the International Tropical Timber 
Organization established in accordance with article 3;

(7) "Council" means the International Tropical Timber Council 
established in accordance with article 6;

(8) "Special vote" means a vote requiring a least two thirds 
of the votes cast by producing members present and voting and 
at least 60 per cent of the votes cast by consuming members 
present and voting, counted separately, on condition that 
these votes are cast by at least half of the producing 
members present and voting and at least half of the consuming 
members present and voting;

(9) "Simple distributed majority vote" means a vote requiring 
more than half of the votes cast by producing members present 
and voting and more than half of the votes cast by consuming 
members present and voting, counted separately;

(10) "Financial year" means the period from 1 January to 31 
December inclusive;

(11) "Freely usable currencies" means the deutsche mark , the 
French franc, the Japanese yen, the pound sterling, the 
United States dollar and any other currency which has been 
designated from time to time by a competent international 
monetary organization as being in fact widely used to make 
payments for international transactions and widely traded in 
the principal exchange markets.



CHAPTER III. ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION

Article 3
Headquarters and structure of the International Tropical 
Timber Organization

1. The International Tropical Timber Organization established 
by the International Tropical Timber Agreement, 1983 shall 
continue in being for the purposes of administering the 
provisions and supervising the operation of this Agreement.

2. The Organization shall function through the Council 
established under article 6, the committees and other 
subsidiary bodies referred to in article 26 and the Executive 
Director and staff.

3. The headquarters of the Organization shall be in Yokohama, 
unless the Council, by special vote, decides otherwise.

4. The headquarters of the Organization shall at all times be 
located in the territory of a member.

Article 4
Membership in the Organization

There shall be two categories of membership in the 
Organization, namely:

	(a) Producing; and

	(b) Consuming.

Article 5
Membership by intergovernmental organizations

1. Any reference in this Agreement to "Governments" shall be 
construed as including the European Community and any other 
intergovernmental organization having responsibilities in 
respect of the negotiation, conclusion and application of 
international agreements, in particular commodity agreements. 
Accordingly, any reference in this Agreement to signature, 
ratification, acceptance or approval, or to notification of 
provisional application, or to accession shall, in the case 
of such intergovernmental organizations, be construed as 
including a reference to signature, ratification, acceptance 
or approval, or to notification of provisional application, 
or to accession, by such intergovernmental organizations.

2. In the case of voting on matters within their competence, 
such intergovernmental organizations shall vote with a number 
of votes equal to the total number of votes attributable to 
their member States in accordance with article 10. In such 
cases, the member States of such intergovernmental 
organizations shall not be entitled to exercise their 
individual voting rights.



CHAPTER IV. INTERNATIONAL TROPICAL TIMBER COUNCIL

Article 6
Composition of the International Tropical Timber Council

1. The highest authority of the Organization shall be the 
International Tropical Timber Council, which shall consist of 
all the members of the Organization.

2. Each member shall be represented in the Council by one 
representative and may designate alternates and advisers to 
attend sessions of the Council.

3. An alternate representative shall be empowered to act and 
vote on behalf of the representative during the latter's 
absence or in special circumstances.

Article 7
Powers and functions of the Council

1. The Council shall exercise all such powers and perform or 
arrange for the performance of all such functions as are 
necessary to carry out the provisions of this Agreement.

2. The Council shall, by special vote, adopt such rules and 
regulations as are necessary to carry out the provisions of 
this Agreement and as are consistent therewith, including its 
own rules of procedure and the financial rules and staff 
regulations of the Organization. Such financial rules 
regulations shall, inter alia, govern the receipt and 
expenditure of funds under the Administrative Account, the 
Special Account and the Bali Partnership Fund. The Council 
may, in its rules of procedure, provide for a procedure 
whereby it may, without meeting, decide specific questions.

3. The Council shall keep such records as are required for 
the performance of its functions under this Agreement.

Article 8
Chairman and Vice-Chairman of the Council

1. The Council shall elect for each calendar year a Chairman 
and a Vice-Chairman, whose salaries shall not be paid by the 
Organization.

2. The Chairman and the Vice-Chairman shall be elected, one 
from among the representatives of producing members and the 
other from among the representatives of consuming members. 
These offices shall alternate each year between the two 
categories of members, provided, however, that this shall not 
prohibit the re-election of either or both, under exceptional 
circumstances, by special vote of the Council.

3. In the temporary absence of the Chairman, the Vice-
Chairman shall act in his place. In the temporary absence of 
both the Chairman and the Vice-Chairman, or in the absence of 
one or both of them for the rest of the term for which they 
were elected, the Council may elect new officers from among 
the representatives of the producing members and/or from 
among the representatives of the consuming members, as the 
case may be, on a temporary basis or for the rest of the term 
for which the predecessor or predecessors were elected.

Article 9
Sessions of the Council

1. As a general rule, the Council shall hold at least one 
regular session a year.

2. The Council shall meet in special session whenever it so 
decides or at the request of:

	(a) The Executive Director, in agreement with the 
Chairman of the Council; or
	(b) A majority of producing members or a majority of 
consuming members; or
	(c) Members holding at least 500 votes.

3. Sessions of the Council shall be held at the headquarters 
of the Organization unless the Council, by special vote, 
decides otherwise. If on the invitation of any member the 
Council meets elsewhere than at the headquarters of the 
Organization, that member shall pay the additional cost of 
holding the meeting away from headquarters.

4. Notice of any sessions and the agenda for such sessions 
shall be communicated to members by the Executive Director at 
least six weeks in advance, except in cases of emergency, 
when notice shall be communicated at least seven days in 
advance.

Article 10
Distribution of votes

1. The producing members shall together hold 1,000 votes and 
the consuming members shall together hold 1,000 votes.

2. The votes of the producing members shall be distributed as 
follows:

	(a) Four hundred votes shall be distributed equally 
among the three producing regions of Africa, Asia-Pacific and 
Latin America. The votes thus allocated to each of these 
regions shall then be distributed equally among the producing 
members of that region;

	(b) Three hundred votes shall be distributed among the 
producing members in accordance with their respective shares 
of the total tropical forest resources of all producing 
members; and

	(c) Three hundred votes shall be distributed among the 
producing members in proportion to the average of the values 
of their respective net exports of tropical timber during the 
most recent three-year period for which definitive figures 
are available.


3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2 of this 
article, the total votes allocated to the producing members 
from the African region, calculated in accordance with 
paragraph 2 of this article, shall be distributed equally 
among all producing members from the African region. If there 
are any remaining votes, each of these votes shall be 
allocated to a producing member from the African region: the 
first to the producing member which is allocated the highest 
number of votes calculated in accordance with paragraph 2 of 
this article, the second to the producing member which is 
allocated the second highest number of votes, and so on until 
all the remaining votes have been distributed.

4. For purposes of the calculation of the distribution of 
votes under paragraph 2 (b) of this article, "tropical forest 
resources" means productive closed broad-leaved forests as 
defined by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).

5. The votes of the consuming members shall be distributed as 
follows:  each consuming member shall have 10 initial votes: 
the remaining votes shall be distributed among the consuming 
members in proportion to the average volume of their 
respective net imports of tropical timber during the three-
year period commencing four calendar years prior to the 
distribution of votes.

6. The Council shall distribute the votes for each financial 
year at the beginning of its first session of that year in 
accordance with the provisions of this article. Such 
distribution shall remain in effect for the rest of that 
year, except as provided for in paragraph 7 of this article.

7. Whenever the membership of the Organization changes or 
when any member has its voting rights suspended or restored 
under any provision of this Agreement, the Council shall 
redistribute the votes within the affected category or 
categories of members in accordance with the provisions of 
this article. The Council shall, in that event, decide when 
such redistribution shall become effective.

8. There shall be no fractional votes.

Article 11
Voting procedure of the Council

1. Each member shall be entitled to cast the number of votes 
it holds and no member shall be entitled to divide its votes. 
A member may, however, cast differently from such votes any 
votes which it is authorized to cast under paragraph 2 of 
this article.

2. By written notification to the Chairman of the Council, 
any producing member may authorize, under its own 
responsibility, any other producing member, and any consuming 
member may authorize, under its own responsibility, any other 
consuming member, to represent its interests and to cast its 
votes at any meeting of the Council.

3. When abstaining, a member shall be deemed not to have cast 
its votes.

Article 12
Decisions and recommendations of the Council

1. The Council shall endeavour to take all decisions and to 
make all recommendations by consensus. If consensus cannot be 
reached, the Council shall take all decisions and make all 
recommendations by a simple distributed majority vote, unless 
this Agreement provides for a special vote.

2. Where a member avails itself of the provisions of article 
11, paragraph 2, and its votes are cast at a meeting of the 
Council, such member shall, for the purposes of paragraph 1 
of this article, be considered as present and voting.

Article 13
Quorum for the Council

1. The quorum for any meeting of the Council shall be the 
presence of a majority of members of each category referred 
to in article 4, provided that such members hold at least two 
thirds of the total votes in their respective categories.

2. If there is no quorum in accordance with paragraph 1 of 
this article on the day fixed for the meeting and on the 
following day, the quorum on the subsequent days of the 
session shall be the presence of a majority of members of 
each category referred to in article 4, provided that such 
members hold a majority of the total votes in their 
respective categories. 

3. Representation in accordance with article 11, paragraph 2, 
shall be considered as presence.

Article 14
Cooperation and co-ordination with other organizations

1. The Council shall make arrangements as appropriate for 
consultations and cooperation with the United Nations and its 
organs, including the United Nations Conference on Trade and 
Development (UNCTAD) and the Commission on Sustainable 
Development (CSD), intergovernmental organizations, including 
the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the 
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of 
Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), and non-governmental 
organizations.

2. The Organization shall, to the maximum extent possible, 
utilize the facilities, services and expertise of existing 
intergovernmental, governmental or non-governmental 
organizations, in order to avoid duplication of efforts in 
achieving the objectives of this Agreement and to enhance the 
complementarity and the efficiency of their activities.

Article 15
Admission of observers

The Council may invite any non-member Government or any of 
the organizations referred to in article 14, article 20 and 
article 29, interested in the activities of the Organization 
to attend as observers any of the meetings of the Council.

Article 16
Executive Director and staff

1. The Council shall, by special vote, appoint the Executive 
Director.

2. The terms and conditions of appointment of the Executive 
Director shall be determined by the Council.

3. The Executive Director shall be the chief administrative 
officer of the Organization and shall be responsible to the 
Council for the administration and operation of this 
Agreement in accordance with decisions of the Council.

4. The Executive Director shall appoint the staff in 
accordance with regulations to be established by the Council. 
The Council shall, by special vote, decide the number of 
executive and professional staff the Executive Director may 
appoint. Any changes in the number of executive and 
professional staff shall be decided by the Council by special 
vote. The staff shall be responsible to the Executive 
Director.

5. Neither the Executive Director nor any member of the staff 
shall have any financial interest in the timber industry or 
trade, or associated commercial activities.

6. In the performance of their duties, the Executive Director 
and staff shall not seek or receive instructions from any 
member or from any authority external to the Organization. 
They shall refrain from any action which might reflect 
adversely on their positions as international officials 
ultimately responsible to the Council. Each member shall 
respect the exclusively international character of the 
responsibilities of the Executive Director and staff and 
shall not seek to influence them in the discharge of their 
responsibilities.



CHAPTER V. PRIVILEGES AND IMMUNITIES

Article 17
Privileges and immunities

1. The Organization shall have legal personality. It shall in 
particular have the capacity to contract, to acquire and 
dispose of movable and immovable property, and to institute 
legal proceedings.

2. The status, privileges and immunities of the Organization, 
of its Executive Director, its staff and experts, and of 
representatives of members while in the territory of Japan 
shall continue to be governed by the Headquarters Agreement 
between the Government of Japan and the International 
Tropical Timber Organization signed at Tokyo on 27 February 
1988, with such amendments as may be necessary for the proper 
functioning of this Agreement.

3. The Organization may conclude, with one or more countries, 
agreements to be approved by the Council relating to such 
capacity, privileges and immunities as may be necessary for 
the proper functioning of this Agreement.

4. If the headquarters of the Organization is moved to 
another country, the member in question shall, as soon as 
possible, conclude with the Organization a headquarters 
agreement to be approved by the Council. Pending the 
conclusion of such an Agreement, the Organization shall 
request the new host Government to grant, within the limits 
of its national legislation, exemption from taxation on 
remuneration paid by the Organization to its employees, and 
on the assets, income and other property of the Organization.

5. The Headquarters Agreement shall be independent of this 
Agreement. It shall, however, terminate:

	(a) By agreement between the host Government and the 
Organization;
	(b) In the event of the headquarters of the Organization 
being moved from the country of the host Government; or
	(c) In the event of the Organization ceasing to exist.



CHAPTER VI. FINANCE

Article 18
Financial accounts

1. There shall be established:

	(a) The Administrative Account;
	(b) The Special Account;
	(c) The Bali Partnership Fund; and
	(d) Such other accounts as the Council shall deem 
appropriate and necessary.

2. The Executive Director shall be responsible for the 
administration of these accounts and the Council shall make 
provision therefor in the financial rules of the 
Organization.

Article 19
Administrative Account

1. The expenses necessary for the administration of this 
Agreement shall be brought into the Administrative Account 
and shall be met by annual contributions paid by members in 
accordance with their respective constitutional or 
institutional procedures and assessed in accordance with 
paragraphs 3, 4 and 5 of this article.

2. The expenses of delegations to the Council, the committees 
and any other subsidiary bodies of the Council referred to in 
article 26 shall be met by the members concerned. In cases 
where a member requests special services from the 
Organization, the Council shall require that member to pay 
the costs of such services.

3. Before the end of each financial year, the Council shall 
approve the administrative budget of the Organization for the 
following financial year and shall assess the contribution of 
each member to that budget.

4. The contribution of each member to the administrative 
budget for each financial year shall be in the proportion 
which the number of its votes at the time the administrative 
budget for that financial year is approved bears to the total 
votes of all the members. In assessing contributions, the 
votes of each member shall be calculated without regard to 
the suspension of any member's voting rights or any 
redistribution of votes resulting therefrom.

5. The initial contribution of any member joining the 
Organization after the entry into force of this Agreement 
shall be assessed by the Council on the basis of the number 
of votes to be held by that member and the period remaining 
in the current financial year, but the assessment made upon 
other members from the current financial year shall not 
thereby be altered.

6. Contributions to administrative budgets shall become due 
on the first day of each financial year. Contributions of 
members in respect of the financial year in which they join 
the Organization shall be due on the date on which they 
become members.

7. If a member has not paid its full contribution to the 
administrative budget within four months after such 
contribution becomes due in accordance with paragraph 6 of 
this article, the Executive Director shall request that 
member to make payment as quickly as possible. If that member 
has still not paid its contribution within two months after 
such request, that member shall be requested to state the 
reasons for its inability to make payment. If at the expiry 
of seven months from the due date of contribution, that 
member has still not paid its contribution, its voting rights 
shall be suspended until such time as it has paid in full its 
contribution, unless the Council, by special vote, decides 
otherwise. If, on the contrary, a member has paid its full 
contribution to the administrative budget within four months 
after such contribution becomes due in accordance with 
paragraph 6 of this article, the member's contribution shall 
receive a discount as may be established by the Council in 
the financial rules of the Organization.

8. A member whose rights have been suspended under paragraph 
7 of this article shall remain liable to pay its 
contribution.

Article 20
Special Account

1. There shall be established two sub-accounts under the 
Special Account:

	(a) The Pre-Project Sub-Account; and
	(b) The Project Sub-Account.

2. The possible sources of finance for the Special Account 
may be:

	(a) The Common Fund for Commodities;
	(b) Regional and international financial institutions; 
and
	(c) Voluntary contributions.

3. The resources of the Special Account shall be used only 
for approved pre-projects or projects.

4. All expenditures under the Pre-Project Sub-Account shall 
be reimbursed from the Project Sub-Account if projects are 
subsequently approved and funded. If within six months of the 
entry into force of this Agreement the Council does not 
receive any funds for the Pre-Project Sub-Account, it shall 
review the situation and take appropriate action.

5. All receipts pertaining to specific identifiable pre-
projects or projects under the Special Account shall be 
brought into that Account. All expenditures incurred on such 
pre-projects or projects, including remuneration and travel 
expenses of consultants and experts, shall be charged to the 
same Account.

6. The Council shall, by special vote, establish terms and 
conditions on which it would, when and where appropriate, 
sponsor projects for loan financing, where a member or 
members have voluntarily assumed full obligations and 
responsibilities for such loans. The Organization shall have 
no obligations for such loans.

7. The Council may nominate and sponsor any entity with the 
consent of that entity, including a member or members, to 
receive loans for the financing of approved projects and to 
undertake all the obligations involved, except that the 
Organization shall reserve to itself the right to monitor the 
use of resources and to follow up on the implementation of 
projects so financed. However, the Organization shall not be 
responsible for guarantees voluntarily provided by individual 
members or other entities.

8. No member shall be responsible by reason of its membership 
in the Organization for any liability arising from borrowing 
or lending by any other member or entity in connection with 
projects.

9. In the event that voluntary unearmarked funds are offered 
to the Organization, the Council may accept such funds. Such 
funds may be utilized for approved pre-projects and projects.

10. The Executive Director shall endeavour to seek, on such 
terms and conditions as the Council may decide, adequate and 
assured finance for pre-projects and projects approved by the 
Council.

11. Contributions for specified approved projects shall be 
used only for the projects for which they were originally 
intended, unless otherwise decided by the Council in 
agreement with the contributor. After the completion of a 
project, the Organization shall return to each contributor 
for specific projects the balance of any funds remaining pro 
rata to each contributor's share in the total of the 
contributions originally made available for financing that 
project, unless otherwise agreed to by the contributor.

Article 21
The Bali Partnership Fund

1. A Fund for sustainable management of tropical timber 
producing forests is hereby established to assist producing 
members to make the investments necessary to achieve the 
objective of article 1 (d) of this Agreement.

2. The Fund shall be constituted by:

	(a) Contributions from donor members;
	(b) Fifty per cent of income earned as a result of 
activities related to the Special Account;
	(c) Resources from other private and public sources 
which the Organization may accept consistent with its 
financial rules.

3. Resources of the Fund shall be allocated by the Council 
only for pre-projects and projects for the purpose set out in 
paragraph 1 of this article and approved in accordance with 
article 25.

4. In allocating resources of the Fund, the Council shall 
take into account:

	(a) The special needs of members whose forestry sectors' 
contribution to their economies is adversely affected by the 
implementation of the strategy for achieving the exports of 
tropical timber and timber products from sustainably managed 
sources by the year 2000;
	(b) The needs of members with significant forest areas 
who establish conservation programmes in timber producing 
forests.

5. The Council shall examine annually the adequacy of the 
resources available to the Fund and endeavour to obtain 
additional resources needed by producing members to achieve 
the purpose of the Fund. The ability of members to implement 
the strategy referred to in paragraph 4 (a) of this article 
will be influenced by the availability of resources.

6. The Council shall establish policies and financial rules 
for the operation of the Fund, including rules covering the 
settlement of accounts on termination or expiry of this 
Agreement.

Article 22
Forms of payment

1. Contributions to the Administrative Account shall be 
payable in freely usable currencies and shall be exempt from 
foreign-exchange restrictions.

2. Financial contributions to the Special Account and the 
Bali Partnership Fund shall be payable in freely usable 
currencies and shall be exempt from foreign-exchange 
restrictions.

3. The Council may also decide to accept other forms of 
contributions to the Special Account or the Bali Partnership 
Fund, including scientific and technical equipment or 
personnel, to meet the requirements of approved projects.

Article 23
Audit and publication of accounts

1. The Council shall appoint independent auditors for the 
purpose of auditing the accounts of the Organization.

2. Independently audited statements of the Administrative 
Account, of the Special Account, and of the Bali Partnership 
Fund shall be made available to members as soon as possible 
after the close of each financial year, but not later than 
six months after that date, and be considered for approval by 
the Council at its next session, as appropriate. A summary of 
the audited accounts and balance sheet shall thereafter be 
published.



CHAPTER VII. OPERATIONAL ACTIVITIES

Article 24
Policy work of the Organization

In order to achieve the objectives set out in article 1, the 
Organization shall undertake policy work and project 
activities in the areas of Economic Information and Market 
Intelligence, Reforestation and Forest Management and Forest 
Industry, in a balanced manner, to the extent possible 
integrating policy work and project activities.

Article 25
Project activities of the Organization

1. Bearing in mind the needs of developing countries, members 
may submit pre-project and project proposals to the Council 
in the fields of research and development, market 
intelligence, further and increased wood processing in 
producing member countries, and reforestation and forest 
management. Pre-projects and projects should contribute to 
the achievement of one or more of the objectives of this 
Agreement.

2. The Council, in approving pre-projects and projects, shall 
take into account:

	(a) their relevance to the objectives of this Agreement;
	(b) their environmental and social effects;
	(c) the desirability of maintaining an appropriate 
geographical balance;
	(d) the interests and characteristics of each of the 
developing producing regions;
	(e) the desirability of equitable distribution of 
resources among the fields referred to in paragraph 1 of this 
article;
	(f) Their cost-effectiveness; and
	(g) the need to avoid duplication of efforts.

3. The Council shall establish a schedule and procedure for 
submitting, appraising, and prioritizing pre-projects and 
projects seeking funding from the Organization, as well as 
for their implementation, monitoring and evaluation. The 
Council shall decide on the approval of pre-projects and 
projects for financing or sponsorship in accordance with 
article 20 or article 21.

4. The Executive Director may suspend disbursement of the 
Organization's funds to a pre-project or project if they are 
being used contrary to the project document or in cases of 
fraud, waste, neglect or mismanagement. The Executive 
Director will provide to the Council at its next session a 
report for its consideration. The Council shall take 
appropriate action.

5. The Council may, by special vote, terminate its 
sponsorship of any pre-project or project.

Article 26
Establishment of Committees

1. The following are hereby established as Committees of the 
Organization:

	(a) Committee on Economic Information and Market 
Intelligence;
	(b) Committee on Reforestation and Forest Management;
	(c) Committee on Forest Industry; and
	(d) Committee on Finance and Administration.

2. The Council may, by special vote, establish such other 
committees and subsidiary bodies as it deems appropriate and 
necessary.

3. Participation in each of the committees shall be open to 
all members. The rules of procedure of the committees shall 
be decided by the Council.

4. The committees and subsidiary bodies referred to in 
paragraphs 1 and 2 of this article shall be responsible to, 
and work under the general direction of, the Council. 
Meetings of the committees and subsidiary bodies shall be 
convened by the Council.

Article 27
Functions of the Committees

1. The Committee on Economic Information and Market 
Intelligence shall:

	(a) Keep under review the availability and quality of 
statistics and other information required by the 
Organization;
	(b) Analyze the statistical data and specific indicators 
as decided by the Council for the monitoring of international 
timber trade;
	(c) Keep under continuous review the international 
timber market, its current situation and short-term prospects 
on the basis of the data mentioned in sub-paragraph (b) above 
and other relevant information, including information related 
to undocumented trade;
	(d) Make recommendations to the Council on the need for, 
and nature of, appropriate studies on tropical timber, 
including prices, market elasticity, market substitutability, 
marketing of new products, and long-term prospects of the 
international tropical timber market, and monitor and review 
any studies commissioned by the Council;
	(e) Carry out any other tasks related to the economic, 
technical and statistical aspects of timber assigned to it by 
the Council;
	(f) Assist in the provision of technical cooperation to 
developing member countries to improve their relevant 
statistical services.

2. The Committee on Reforestation and Forest Management 
shall:

	(a) Promote cooperation between members as partners in 
development of forest activities in member countries, inter 
alia, in the following areas:

		(i) Reforestation;
		(ii) Rehabilitation;
		(iii)Forest management;

	(b) Encourage the increase of technical assistance and 
transfer of technology in the fields of reforestation and 
forest management to developing countries;
	(c) Follow up on-going activities in this field, and 
identify and consider problems and possible solutions to them 
in cooperation with the competent organizations;
	(d) Review regularly the future needs of international 
trade in industrial tropical timber and, on this basis, 
identify and consider appropriate possible schemes and 
measures in the field of reforestation, rehabilitation and 
forest management;
	(e) Facilitate the transfer of knowledge in the field of 
reforestation and forest management with the assistance of 
competent organizations;
	(f) Co-ordinate and harmonize these activities for 
cooperation in the field of reforestation and forest 
management with relevant activities pursued elsewhere, such 
as those under the auspices of the Food and Agricultural 
Organization (FAO), the United Nations Environmental 
Programme (UNEP), the World Bank, the United Nations 
Development Programme (UNDP), regional development banks and 
other competent organizations.

3. The Committee on Forest Industry shall:

	(a) Promote cooperation between member countries as 
partners in the development of processing activities in 
producing member countries, inter alia, in the following 
areas:

		(i) Product development through transfer of 
technology;
		(ii) Human resources development and training;
		(iii) Standardization of nomenclature of tropical 
timber;
		(iv) Harmonization of specifications of processed 
products;
		(v) Encouragement of investment and joint ventures; 
and
		(vi) Marketing including the promotion of lesser 
known and lesser used species;

	(b) Promote the exchange of information in order to 
facilitate structural changes involved in increased and 
further processing in the interests of all member countries, 
in particular developing member countries;
	(c) Follow up on-going activities in this field, and 
identify and consider problems and possible solutions to them 
in cooperation with the competent organizations;
	(d) Encourage the increase of technical cooperation for 
the processing of tropical timber for the benefit of 
producing member countries.

4. In order to promote the policy and project work of the 
Organization in a balanced manner the Committee on Economic 
Information and Market Intelligence, the Committee on 
Reforestation and Forest Management and the Committee on 
Forest Industry shall each:

	(a) Be responsible for ensuring the effective appraisal, 
monitoring and evaluation of pre-projects and projects;
	(b) Make recommendations to the Council relating to pre-
projects and projects;
	(c) Follow up the implementation of pre-projects and 
projects and provide for the collection and dissemination of 
their results as widely as possible for the benefit of all 
members;
	(d) Develop and advance policy ideas to the Council;
	(e) Review regularly the results of project and policy 
work and make recommendations to the Council on the future of 
the Organization's programme;
	(f) Review regularly the strategies, criteria and 
priority areas for programme development and project work 
contained in the Organization's Action Plan and recommend 
revisions to the Council;
	(g) Take account of the need to strengthen capacity 
building and human resource development in member countries;
	(h) Carry out any other task related to the objectives 
of this Agreement assigned to them by the Council.

5. Research and development shall be a common function of the 
Committees referred to in paragraphs 1, 2, and 3 of this 
article.

6. The Committee on Finance and Administration shall:

	(a) Examine and make recommendations to the Council 
regarding the approval of the Organization's administrative 
budget proposals and the management operations of the 
Organization;
	(b) Review the assets of the Organization to ensure 
prudent asset management and that the Organization has 
sufficient reserves to carry on its work;
	(c) Examine and make recommendations to the Council on 
the budgetary implications of the Organization's annual work 
programme, and the actions that might be taken to secure the 
resources needed to implement it;
	(d) Recommend to the Council the choice of independent 
auditors and review the independent audited statements;
	(e) Recommend to the Council any modifications it may 
judge necessary to the Rules of Procedure or the Financial 
Rules;
	(f) Review the Organization's revenues and the extent to 
which they constrain the work of the Secretariat;



CHAPTER VIII. RELATIONSHIP WITH THE COMMON FUND FOR 
COMMODITIES

Article 28
Relationship with the Common Fund for Commodities

The Organization shall take full advantage of the facilities 
of the Common Fund for Commodities.



CHAPTER IX. STATISTICS, STUDIES AND INFORMATION

Article 29
Statistics, studies and information

1. The Council shall establish close relationships with 
relevant intergovernmental, governmental and non-governmental 
organizations, in order to help ensure the availability of 
recent reliable data and information on the trade in tropical 
timber, as well as relevant information on non-tropical 
timber and on the management of timber producing forests. As 
deemed necessary for the operation of this Agreement, the 
Organization, in cooperation with such organizations, shall 
compile, collate and, where relevant, publish statistical 
information on production, supply, trade, stocks, consumption 
and market prices of timber, the extent of timber resources 
and the management of timber producing forests.

2. Members shall, to the fullest extent possible not 
inconsistent with their national legislation, furnish, within 
a reasonable time, statistics and information on timber, its 
trade and the activities aimed at achieving sustainable 
management of timber producing forests as well as other 
relevant information as requested by the Council. The Council 
shall decide on the type of information to be provided under 
this paragraph and on the format in which it is to be 
presented.

3. The Council shall arrange to have any relevant studies 
undertaken of the trends and of short and long-term problems 
of the international timber markets and of the progress 
towards the achievement of sustainable management of timber 
producing forests.

Article 30
Annual report and review

1. The Council shall, within six months after the close of 
each calendar year, publish an annual report on its 
activities and such other information as it considers 
appropriate.

2. The Council shall annually review and assess:

	(a) The international timber situation;
	(b) Other factors, issues and developments considered 
relevant to achieve the objectives of this Agreement.

3. The review shall be carried out in the light of:

	(a) Information supplied by members in relation to 
national production, trade, supply, stocks, consumption and 
prices of timber;
	(b) Other statistical data and specific indicators 
provided by members as requested by the Council; and
	(c) Information supplied by members on their progress 
towards the sustainable management of their timber producing 
forests;
	(d) Such other relevant information as may be available 
to the Council either directly or through the organizations 
in the United Nations system and intergovernmental, 
governmental or non-governmental organizations.

4. The Council shall promote the exchange of views among 
member countries regarding:

	(a) The status of sustainable management of timber 
producing forests and related matters in member countries;
	(b) Resource flows and requirements in relation to 
objectives, criteria and guidelines set by the Organization.

5. Upon request, the Council shall endeavour to enhance the 
technical capacity of member countries, in particular 
developing member countries, to obtain the data necessary for 
adequate information-sharing, including the provision of 
resources for training and facilities to members.

6. The results of the review shall be included in the reports 
of the Council's deliberations.



CHAPTER X. MISCELLANEOUS

Article 31
Complaints and disputes

Any complaint that a member has failed to fulfill its 
obligations under this Agreement and any dispute concerning 
the interpretation or application of this Agreement shall be 
referred to the Council for decision. Decisions of the 
Council on these matters shall be final and binding.

Article 32
General obligations of members

1. Members shall, for the duration of this Agreement, use 
their best endeavours and cooperate to promote the attainment 
of its objectives and to avoid any action contrary thereto.

2. Members undertake to accept and carry out the decisions of 
the Council under the provisions of this Agreement and shall 
refrain from implementing measures which would have the 
effect of limiting or running counter to them.

Article 33
Relief from obligations

1. Where it is necessary on account of exceptional 
circumstances or emergency or force majeure not expressly 
provided for in this Agreement, the Council may, by special 
vote, relieve a member of an obligation under this Agreement 
if it is satisfied by an explanation from that member 
regarding the reasons why the obligation cannot be met.

2. The Council, in granting relief to a member under 
paragraph 1 of this article, shall state explicitly the terms 
and conditions on which, and the period for which, the member 
is relieved of such obligation, and the reasons for which the 
relief is granted.

Article 34
Differential and remedial measures and special measures

1. Developing importing members whose interests are adversely 
affected by measures taken under this Agreement may apply to 
the Council for appropriate differential and remedial 
measures. The Council shall consider taking appropriate 
measures in accordance with section III, paragraphs 3 and 4, 
of resolution 93 (IV) of the United Nations Conference on 
Trade and Development.

2. Members in the category of least developed countries as 
defined by the United Nations may apply to the Council for 
special measures in accordance with section III, paragraph 4, 
of resolution 93 (IV) and with paragraphs 56 and 57 of the 
Paris Declaration and Programme of Action for the Least 
Developed Countries for the 1990s.

Article 35
Review

The Council shall review the scope of this Agreement four 
years after its entry into force.

Article 36
Non-discrimination

Nothing in this Agreement authorizes the use of measures to 
restrict or ban international trade in, and in particular as 
they concern imports of and utilization of, timber and timber 
products.



CHAPTER XI. FINAL PROVISIONS

Article 37
Depositary

The Secretary-General of the United Nations is hereby 
designated as the depositary of this Agreement.

Article 38
Signature, ratification, acceptance and approval

1. This Agreement shall be open for signature, at United 
Nations Headquarters from 1 April 1994 until one month after 
the date of its entry into force, by Governments invited to 
the United Nations Conference for the Negotiation of a 
Successor Agreement to the International Tropical Timber 
Agreement, 1983.

2. Any Government referred to in paragraph 1 of this article 
may:

	(a) At the time of signing this Agreement, declare that 
by such signature it expresses its consent to be bound by 
this Agreement (definitive signature); or
	(b) After signing this Agreement, ratify, accept or 
approve it by the deposit of an instrument to that effect 
with the depositary.

Article 39
Accession

1. This Agreement shall be open for accession by the 
Governments of all states upon conditions established by the 
Council, which shall include a time-limit for the deposit of 
instruments of accession. The Council may, however, grant 
extensions of time to Governments which are unable to accede 
by the time-limit set in the conditions of accession.

2. Accession shall be effected by the deposit of an 
instrument of accession with the depositary.

Article 40
Notification of provisional application

A signatory Government which intends to ratify, accept or 
approve this Agreement, or a Government for which the Council 
has established conditions for accession but which has not 
yet been able to deposit its instrument, may, at any time, 
notify the depositary that it will apply this Agreement 
provisionally either when it enters into force in accordance 
with article 41, or, if it is already in force, at a 
specified date.

Article 41
Entry into force

1. This Agreement shall enter into force definitively on 1 
February 1995 or on any date thereafter, if 12 Governments of 
producing countries holding at least 55 per cent of the total 
votes as set out in annex A to this Agreement, and 16 
Governments of consuming countries holding at least 70 per 
cent of the total votes as set out in annex B to this 
Agreement have signed this Agreement definitively or have 
ratified, accepted or approved it or acceded thereto pursuant 
to article 38, paragraph 2, or article 39.

2. If this Agreement has not entered into force definitively 
on 1 February 1995, it shall enter into force provisionally 
on that date or on any date within six months thereafter, if, 
10 Governments of producing countries holding at least 50 per 
cent of the total votes as set out in annex A to this 
Agreement, and 14 Governments of consuming countries holding 
at least 65 per cent of the total votes as set out in annex B 
to this Agreement, have signed this Agreement definitively or 
have ratified, accepted or approved it pursuant to article 
38, paragraph 2, or have notified the depositary under 
article 40 that they will apply this Agreement provisionally.

3. If the requirements for entry into force under paragraph 1 
or paragraph 2 of this article have not been met on 1 
September 1995, the Secretary-General of the United Nations 
shall invite those Governments which have signed this 
Agreement definitively or have ratified, accepted or approved 
it pursuant to article 38, paragraph 2, or have notified the 
depositary that they will apply this Agreement provisionally, 
to meet at the earliest time practicable to decide whether to 
put this Agreement into force provisionally or definitively 
among themselves in whole or in part. Governments which 
decide to put this Agreement into force provisionally among 
themselves may meet from time to time to review the situation 
and decide whether this Agreement shall enter into force 
definitively among themselves.

4. For any Government which has not notified the depositary 
under article 40 that it will apply this Agreement 
provisionally and which deposits its instrument of 
ratification, acceptance, approval or accession after the 
entry into force of this Agreement, this Agreement shall 
enter into force on the date of such deposit.

5. The Executive Director of the Organization shall convene 
the Council as soon as possible after the entry into force of 
this Agreement.

Article 42
Amendments

1. The Council may, by special vote, recommend an amendment 
of this Agreement to members.

2. The Council shall fix a date by which members shall notify 
the depositary of their acceptance of the amendment.

3. An amendment shall enter into force 90 days after the 
depositary has received notifications of acceptance from 
members constituting at least two thirds of the producing 
members and accounting for at least 75 per cent of the votes 
of the producing members, and from members constituting at 
least two thirds of the consuming members and accounting for 
at least 75 per cent of the votes of the consuming members.

4. After the depositary informs the Council that the 
requirements for entry into force of the amendment have been 
met, and notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2 of 
this article relating to the date fixed by the Council, a 
member may still notify the depositary of its acceptance of 
the amendment, provided that such notification is made before 
the entry into force of the amendment.

5. Any member which has not notified its acceptance of an 
amendment by the date on which such amendment enters into 
force shall cease to be a party to this Agreement as from 
that date, unless such member has satisfied the Council that 
its acceptance could not be obtained in time owing to 
difficulties in completing its constitutional or 
institutional procedures, and the Council decides to extend 
for that member the period for acceptance of the amendment. 
Such member shall not be bound by the amendment before it has 
notified its acceptance thereof.

6. If the requirements for the entry into force of the 
amendment have not been met by the date fixed by the Council 
in accordance with paragraph 2 of this article, the amendment 
shall be considered withdrawn.

Article 43
Withdrawal

1. A member may withdraw from this Agreement at any time 
after the entry into force of this Agreement by giving 
written notice of withdrawal to the depositary. That member 
shall simultaneously inform the Council of the action it has 
taken.

2. Withdrawal shall become effective 90 days after the notice 
is received by the depositary.

3. Financial obligations to the Organization incurred by a 
member under this Agreement shall not be terminated by its 
withdrawal.

Article 44
Exclusion

If the Council decides that any member is in breach of its 
obligations under this Agreement and decides further that 
such breach significantly impairs the operation of this 
Agreement, it may, by special vote, exclude that member from 
this Agreement. The Council shall immediately so notify the 
depositary. Six months after the date of the Council's 
decision, that member shall cease to be a party to this 
Agreement.

Article 45
Settlement of accounts with withdrawing or excluded members 
or members unable to accept an amendment

1. The Council shall determine any settlement of accounts 
with a member which ceases to be a party to this Agreement 
owing to:

	(a) Non-acceptance of an amendment to this Agreement 
under article 42;
	(b) Withdrawal from this Agreement under article 43; or
	(c) Exclusion from this Agreement under article 44.

2. The Council shall retain any contribution paid to the 
Administrative Account, to the Special Account, or to the 
Bali Partnership Fund by a member which ceases to be a party 
to this Agreement.

3. A member which has ceased to be a party to this Agreement 
shall not be entitled to any share of the proceeds of 
liquidation or the other assets of the Organization. Nor 
shall such member be liable for payment of any part of the 
deficit, if any, of the Organization upon termination of this 
Agreement.

Article 46
Duration, extension and termination

1. This Agreement shall remain in force for a period of four 
years after its entry into force unless the Council, by 
special vote, decides to extend, renegotiate or terminate it 
in accordance with the provisions of this article.

2. The Council may, by special vote, decide to extend this 
Agreement for two periods of three years each.

3. If, before the expiry of the four-year period referred to 
in paragraph 1 of this article, or before the expiry of an 
extension period referred to in paragraph 2 of this article, 
as the case may be, a new agreement to replace this Agreement 
has been negotiated but has not yet entered into force either 
definitively or provisionally, the Council may, by special 
vote, extend this Agreement until the provisional or 
definitive entry into force of the new agreement.

4. If a new agreement is negotiated and enters into force 
during any period of extension of this Agreement under 
paragraph 2 or paragraph 3 of this article, this Agreement, 
as extended, shall terminate upon the entry into force of the 
new agreement.

5. The Council may at any time, by special vote, decide to 
terminate this Agreement with effect from such date as it may 
determine.

6. Notwithstanding the termination of this Agreement, the 
Council shall continue in being for a period not exceeding 18 
months to carry out the liquidation of the Organization, 
including the settlement of accounts, and, subject to 
relevant decisions to be taken by special vote, shall have 
during that period such powers and functions as may be 
necessary for these purposes.

7. The Council shall notify the depositary of any decision 
taken under this article.

Article 47
Reservations

Reservations may not be made with respect to any of the 
provisions of this Agreement.

Article 48
Supplementary and transitional provisions

1. This Agreement shall be the successor to the International 
Tropical Timber Agreement, 1983.

2. All acts by or on behalf of the Organization or any of its 
organs under the International Tropical Timber Agreement, 
1983, which are in effect on the date of entry into force of 
this Agreement and the terms of which do not provide for 
expiry on that date shall remain in effect unless changed 
under the provisions of this Agreement.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, being duly authorized 
thereto, have affixed their signatures under this Agreement 
on the dates indicated.

DONE at Geneva, on the twenty-six day of January, one 
thousand nine hundred and ninety-four, the text of this 
Agreement in the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian 
and Spanish languages being equally authentic.



ANNEXES

ANNEX A

List of producing countries with tropical forest resources 
and/or net exporters of tropical timber in volume terms, and 
allocation of votes for the purposes of article 41

Bolivia							21
Brazil						       133
Cameroon						23
Colombia						24
Congo							23
Costa Rica						 9
Côte d'Ivoire						23
Dominican Republic					 9
Ecuador							14
El Salvador						 9
Equatorial Guinea					23
Gabon							23
Ghana							23
Guyana							14
Honduras						 9
India							34
Indonesia					       170
Liberia							23
Malaysia					       139
Mexico							14
Myanmar							33
Panama							10
Papua New Guinea					28
Paraguay						11
Peru							25
Philippines						25
Tanzania, United Republic of				23
Thailand						20
Togo							23
Trinidad & Tobago					 9
Venezuela						10
Zaire							23
-------------------------------------------------------------
Total						      1000



ANNEX B

List of consuming countries and allocation of votes for the 
purposes of article 41

Afghanistan						10
Algeria							13
Australia						18
Austria							11
Bahrain							11
Bulgaria						10
Canada							12
Chile							10
China							36
Egypt							14
European Community				      (302)
Belgium/Luxembourg					26
Denmark							11
France 							44
Germany							35
Greece 							13
Ireland							13
Italy							35
Netherlands						40
Portugal						18
Spain							25
United Kingdom						42
Finland							10
Japan						       320
Nepal 							10
New Zealand						10
Norway 							10
Republic of Korea					97
Russian Federation					13
Slovakia						11
Sweden							10
Switzerland						11
United States of America				51
-------------------------------------------------------------
Total 						      1000