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Protocol on Protection of the Black Sea Marine Environment
Against Pollution from Land Based Sources

21 April 1992

Article 1

In accordance with Article VII of the Convention, the
Contracting Parties shall take all necessary measures to
prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment
of the Black Sea caused by discharges from land-based sources on
their territories such as rivers, canals, coastal
establishments, other artificial structures, out falls or
run-off, or emanating from any other land-based source,
including through the atmosphere.

Article 2

For the purposes of this Protocol, the fresh water limit means
the landward part of the line drawn between the endpoints on the
right and the left banks of a water course where it reaches the
Black Sea.

Article 3

This protocol shall apply to the Black Sea as defined in Article
I of the Convention and to the waters landward of the baselines
from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured and in
the case of fresh-watercourses, up to the fresh-water limit.

Article 4

The Contracting Parties undertake to prevent and eliminate
pollution of the marine environment of the Black Sea from
land-based sources by substances and matter listed in Annex I to
this Protocol. The Contracting Parties undertake to reduce and,
whenever possible, to eliminate pollution of the marine
environment of the Black Sea from land-based sources by
substances and matter listed in Annex II to this Protocol. As to
water courses that are tributaries to the Black Sea, the
Contracting Parties will endeavour to cooperate, as appropriate,
with other States in order to achieve the purposes set forth in
this Article.

Article 5

Pursuant to the provisions of Article XV of the Convention, each
Contracting Party shall carry out, at the earliest possible
date, monitoring activities in order to assess the levels of
pollution, its sources and ecological effects along its coast,
in particular with regard to the substances and matter listed in
Annexes I and II to this Protocol. Additional research will be
conducted upstream of river sections in order to investigate
fresh/salt water interactions.

Article 6

In conformity with Article XV of the Convention, the Contracting
Parties shall cooperate in elaborating common guidelines,
standards or criteria dealing with special characteristics of
marine out falls and in undertaking research on specific
requirements for effluents necessitating separate treatment and
concerning the quantities of discharged substances and matter
listed in Annexes I and II, their concentration in effluents,
and methods of discharging them. The common emission standards
and timetable for the implementation of the programme and
measures aimed at preventing, reducing or eliminating, as
appropriate, pollution from land-based sources shall be fixed by
the Contracting Parties and periodically reviewed for substances
and matter listed in Annexes I and II to this Protocol. The
Commission shall define pollution prevention criteria as well as
recommend appropriate measures to reduce, control and eliminate
pollution of the marine environment of the Black Sea from
land-based sources. The Contracting Parties shall take into
consideration the following:

a) The discharge of water from municipal sewage systems should
be made in such a way as to reduce the pollution of the marine
environment of the Black Sea.

b) The pollution load of industrial wastes should be reduced in
order to comply with the accepted concentrations of substances
and matter listed in Annexes I and II to this Protocol.

c) The discharge of cooling water from nuclear power plants or
other industrial enterprises using large amounts of water should
be made in such a way as to prevent pollution of the marine
environment of the Black Sea.

d) The pollution load from agricultural and forest areas
affecting the water quality of the marine environment of the
Black Sea should be reduced in order to comply with the accepted
concentrations of substances and matter listed in Annexes I and
II to this Protocol.

Article 7

The Contracting Parties shall inform one another through the
Commission of measures taken, results achieved or difficulties
encountered in the application of this Protocol. Procedures for
the collection and transmission of such information shall be
determined by the Commission.

Annex I

Hazardous Substances and Matter

The following substances or groups of substances or matter are
not listed in order of priority. They have been selected mainly
on the basis of their toxicity, persistence and bioaccumulation
characteristics. This Annex does not apply to discharges which
contain substances and matter listed below that are below the
concentration limits defined jointly by the Contracting Parties,
not exceeding environmental background concentrations.

1. Organotin compounds.

2. Organohalogen compounds e.g. DDT, DDE, DDD, PCB's.

3. Persistent organophosphorus compounds.

4. Mercury and mercury compounds.

5. Cadmium and cadmium compounds.

6. Persistent substances with proven toxic carcinogenic,
teratogenic or mutagenic properties.

7. Used lubricating oils.

8. Persistent synthetic materials which may float, sink or
remain in suspension.

9. Radioactive substances and wastes, including used radioactive
fuel.

10. Lead and lead compounds.

Annex II

Noxious Substances and Matter

The following substances and matter have been selected mainly on
the basis of criteria used in Annex I, while taking into account
the fact that they are less harmful or more readily rendered
harmless by natural processes. The control and strict limitation
of the discharges of substances and matter referred to in this
Annex shall be implemented in accordance with Annex III to this
Protocol.

1. Biocides and their derivatives not covered in Annex I.

2. Cyanides, flourides, and elemental phosphorus.

3. Pathogenic micro-organisms.

4. Nonbiodegradable detergents and their surface-active
substances.

5. Alkaline or acid compounds.

6. Thermal discharges.

7. Substances which, although of a non-toxic nature, may become
harmful to the marine biota owing to the quantities in which
they are discharged e.g. inorganic phosphorous, nitrogen,
organic matter and other nutrient compounds. Also substances
which have an adverse effect on the oxygen content in the marine
environment.

8. The following elements and their compounds:

Zinc

Selenium

Tin

Vanadium

Copper

Arsenic

Barium

Cobalt

Nickel

Antimony

Beryllium

Thallium

Chromium

Molybdenum

Boron

Tellurium

Titanium

Uranium

Silver

9. Crude oil and hydrocarbons of any origin.

Annex III

The discharges of substances and matter listed in Annex II to
this Protocol shall be subject to restrictions based on the
following:

1. Maximum permissible concentrations of the substances and
matter immediate before the outlet;

2. Maximum permissible quantity (load, inflow) of the substances
and matter per annual cycle or shorter time limit;

3. In case of differences between 1 and 2 above, the stricter
restriction should apply. When issuing a permit for the
discharge of wastes containing substances and matter referred to
in Annexes I and II to this Protocol, the national authorities
will take particular account, as the case may be, of the
following factors:

A. CHARACTERISTICS AND COMPOSITION OF THE WASTE

1. Type and size of waste source (e.g. industrial process).

2. Type of waste (origin, average composition).

3. Form of waste (solid, liquid, sludge, slurry).

4. Total amount (volume discharged e.g. per year).

5. Discharge pattern (continuous, intermittent, seasonally
variable, etc.).

6. Concentrations with respect to major constituents, substances
listed in Annex I, substances listed in Annex II, and other
harmful substances as appropriate.

7. Physical, chemical and biological properties of the waste.

B.CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTE CONSTITUENTS WITH RESPECT TO THEIR
HARMFULNESS

1. Persistence (physical, chemical, biological) in the marine
environment.

2. Toxicity and other harmful effects.

3. Accumulation in biological materials and sediments.

4. Biochemical transformation producing harmful compounds.

5. Adverse effects on the oxygen contents and balance.

6. Susceptibility to physical, chemical and biochemical changes
and interaction in the marine environment with other seawater
constituents which may produce harmful biological or other
effects on any of the uses listed in section E below.

C. CHARACTERISTICS OF DISCHARGE SITE AND RECEIVING MARINE
ENVIRONMENT

1. Hydrographic, meteorological, geological and topographic
characteristics of the coastal area.

2. Location and type of discharge (outfall, canal, outlet, etc.)
and its relation to other areas (such as amenity areas,
spawning, nursery and fishing areas, shellfish grounds) and
other discharges.

3. Initial dilution achieved at the point of discharge into the
receiving marine environment.

4. Dispersal characteristics such as the effect of currents,
tides and winds on horizontal transport and vertical mixing.

5. Receiving water characteristics with respect to physical,
chemical, biological and ecological conditions in the discharge
area.

6. Capacity of the receiving marine environment to receive waste
discharges without undesirable effects.

D. AVAILABILITY OF WASTE TECHNOLOGIES

The methods of waste reduction and discharge for industrial
effluents as well as household sewage should be selected taking
into account the availability and feasibility of:

a) Alternative treatment processes;

b) Recycling, re-use, or elimination methods;

c) On-land disposal alternatives; and

d) Appropriate clean and low-waste technologies.

E. POTENTIAL IMPAIRMENT OF MARINE ECOSYSTEMS AND SEA-WATER USES

1. Effects on human life through pollution impact on:

a) Edible marine organisms;

b) Bathing waters;

c) Aesthetics.

Discharges of wastes containing substances and matter listed in
Annexes I and II shall be subject to a system of self-monitoring
and control by the competent national authorities.

2. Effects on marine ecosystems, in particular living resources,
endangered species, and critical habitats.

3. Effects on other legitimate uses of the sea.