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Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the 
Safety of Fixed Platforms Located on the Continental Shelf

Done at Rome, 10 March 1988

Entered into force 1 March 1992

THE STATES PARTIES TO THIS PROTOCOL,

BEING PARTIES to the Convention for the Suppression of 
Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation,

RECOGNIZING that the reasons for which the Convention was 
elaborated also apply to fixed platforms located on the 
continental shelf,

TAKING ACCOUNT of the provisions of that Convention,

AFFIRMING that matters not regulated by this Protocol 
continue to be governed by the rules and principles of 
general international law,

HAVE AGREED as follows:

Article 1

1. The provisions of articles 5 and 7 and of articles 10 to 
16 of the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts 
against the Safety of Maritime Navigation (hereinafter 
referred to as "the Convention") shall also apply mutatis 
mutandis to the offences set forth in article 2 of this 
Protocol where such offences are committed on board or 
against fixed platforms located on the continental shelf.

2. In cases where this Protocol does not apply pursuant to 
paragraph 1, it nevertheless applies when the offender or 
the alleged offender is found in the territory of a State 
Party other than the State in whose internal waters or 
territorial sea the fixed platform is located.

3. For the purposes of this Protocol, "fixed platform" means 
an artificial island, installation or structure permanently 
attached to the sea-bed for the purpose of exploration or 
exploitation of resources or for other economic purposes.

Article 2

1. Any person commits an offence if that person unlawfully 
and intentionally:

(a) seizes or exercises control over a fixed platform by 
force or threat thereof or any other form of intimidation; 
or

(b) performs an act of violence against a person on board a 
fixed platform if that act is likely to endanger its safety; 
or

(c) destroys a fixed platform or causes damage to it which 
is likely to endanger its safety; or

(d) places or causes to be placed on a fixed platform, by 
any means whatsoever, a device or substance which is likely 
to destroy that fixed platform or likely to endanger its 
safety; or

(e) injures or kills any person in connection with the 
commission or the attempted commission of any of the 
offences set forth in subparagraphs (a) to (d).

2. Any person also commits an offence if that person:

(a) attempts to commit any of the offences set forth in 
paragraph 1; or

(b) abets the commission of any such offences perpetrated by 
any person or is otherwise an accomplice of a person who 
commits such an offence; or

(c) threatens, with or without a condition, as is provided 
for under national law, aimed at compelling a physical or 
juridical person to do or refrain from doing any act, to 
commit any of the offences set forth in paragraph 1, 
subparagraphs (b) and (c), if that threat is likely to 
endanger the safety of the fixed platform.

Article 3

1. Each State Party shall take such measures as may be 
necessary to establish its jurisdiction over the offences 
set forth in article 2 when the offence is committed:

(a) against or on board a fixed platform while it is located 
on the continental shelf of that State; or

(b) by a national of that State.

2. A State Party may also establish its jurisdiction over 
any such offence when:

(a) it is committed by a stateless person whose habitual 
residence is in that State;

(b) during its commission a national of that State is 
seized, threatened, injured or killed; or

(c) it is committed in an attempt to compel that State to do 
or abstain from doing any act.

3. Any State Party which has established jurisdiction 
mentioned in paragraph 2 shall notify the Secretary-General 
of the International Maritime Organization (hereinafter 
referred to as "the Secretary-General"). If such State Party 
subsequently rescinds that jurisdiction, it shall notify the 
Secretary-General.

4. Each State Party shall take such measures as may be 
necessary to establish its jurisdiction over the offences 
set forth in article 2 in cases where the alleged offender 
is present in its territory and it does not extradite him to 
any of the States Parties which have established their 
jurisdiction in accordance with paragraphs 1 and 2 of this 
article.

5. This Protocol does not exclude any criminal jurisdiction 
exercised in accordance with national law.

Article 4

Nothing in this Protocol shall affect in any way the rules 
of international law pertaining to fixed platforms located 
on the continental shelf.

Article 5

1. This Protocol shall be open for signature at Rome on 10 
March 1988 and at the Headquarters of the International 
Maritime Organization (hereinafter referred to as "the 
Organization") from 14 March 1988 to 9 March 1989 by any 
State which has signed the Convention. It shall thereafter 
remain open for accession.

2. States may express their consent to be bound by this 
Protocol by:

(a) signature without reservation as to ratification, 
acceptance or approval; or

(b) signature subject to ratification, acceptance or 
approval, followed by ratification, acceptance or approval; 
or

(c) accession.

3. Ratification, acceptance, approval or accession shall be 
effected by the deposit of an instrument to that effect with 
the Secretary-General.

4. Only a State which has signed the Convention without 
reservation as to ratification, acceptance or approval, or 
has ratified, accepted, approved or acceded to the 
Convention may become a Party to this Protocol.

Article 6

1. This Protocol shall enter into force ninety days 
following the date on which three States have either signed 
it without reservation as to ratification, acceptance or 
approval, or have deposited an instrument of ratification, 
acceptance, approval or accession in respect thereof. 
However, this Protocol shall not enter into force before the 
Convention has entered into force.

2. For a State which deposits an instrument of ratification, 
acceptance, approval or accession in respect of this 
Protocol after the conditions for entry into force thereof 
have been met, the ratification, acceptance, approval or 
accession shall take effect ninety days after the date of 
such deposit.

Article 7

1. This Protocol may be denounced by any State Party at any 
time after the expiry of one year from the date on which 
this Protocol enters into force for that State.

2. Denunciation shall be effected by the deposit of an 
instrument of denunciation with the Secretary-General.

3. A denunciation shall take effect one year, or such longer 
period as may be specified in the instrument of 
denunciation, after the receipt of the instrument of 
denunciation by the Secretary-General.

4. A denunciation of the Convention by a State Party shall 
be deemed to be a denunciation of this Protocol by that 
Party.

Article 8

1. A conference for the purpose of revising or amending this 
Protocol may be convened by the Organization.

2. The Secretary-General shall convene a conference of the 
States Parties to this Protocol for revising or amending the 
Protocol, at the request of one third of the States Parties, 
or five States Parties, whichever is the higher figure.

3. Any instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or 
accession deposited after the date of entry into force of an 
amendment to this Protocol shall be deemed to apply to the 
Protocol as amended.

Article 9

1. This Protocol shall be deposited with the Secretary-
General.

2. The Secretary-General shall:

(a) inform all States which have signed this Protocol or 
acceded thereto, and all Members of the Organization, of:

(i) each new signature or deposit of an instrument of 
ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, together 
with the date thereof;

(ii) the date of entry into force of this Protocol;

(iii) the deposit of any instrument of denunciation of this 
Protocol together with the date on which it is received and 
the date on which the denunciation takes effect;

(iv) the receipt of any declaration or notification made 
under this Protocol or under the Convention, concerning this 
Protocol;

(b) transmit certified true copies of this Protocol to all 
States which have signed this Protocol or acceded thereto.

3. As soon as this Protocol enters into force, a certified 
true copy thereof shall be transmitted by the Depositary to 
the Secretary-General of the United Nations for registration 
and publication in accordance with Article 102 of the 
Charter of the United Nations.

Article 10

This Protocol is established in a single original in the 
Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish 
languages, each text being equally authentic.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, being duly authorized by 
their respective Governments for that purpose, have signed 
this Protocol.

DONE AT ROME this tenth day of March one thousand nine 
hundred and eighty-eight.