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BH811.txt REGIONAL CONVENTION FOR THE CONSERVATION OF THE RED SEA AND GULF OF ADEN ENVIRONMENT; and PROTOCOL (1982) ENTRY INTO FORCE: 20 August 1985 [note: "degree" symbols replaced by 'd*'] The Governments of: the Democratic Republic of the Sudan, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Palestine represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization, the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, the Somali Democratic Republic, the Yemen Arab Republic, Realizing that pollution of the marine environment in the waters of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden by oil and other harmful or noxious materials arising from human activities on land or at sea, especially through indiscriminate and uncontrolled discharge of these substances, presents a growing threat to marine life, fisheries, human health, recreational uses of beaches and other amenities, Mindful of the special hydrographic and ecological characteristics of the marine environment of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden and the particular vulnerability of its coral reefs where most biota exist, Conscious of the need to ensure that the processes of urban and rural development and resultant land use should be carried out in such a manner as to preserve, as far as possible, marine resources and coastal amenities, and that such development should not lead to deterioration of the marine environment, Convinced of the need to ensure that the processes of industrial development should not, in any way, cause damage to the marine environment, jeopardize its living resources or create hazards to human health, Recognizing the need to develop an integrated management approach to the use of the marine environment and the coastal areas which will allow the achievement of environmental and development goals in a harmonious manner, Recognizing also the need for a carefully planned research, monitoring and assessment programme in view of the scarcity of scientific information on marine pollution in the region, Considering that the States of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden have a special responsibility to protect the marine environment of the region, Aware of the importance of co-operation and coordination of action on a regional basis with the aim of protecting the marine environment of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden for the benefit of all concerned, including future generations, Bearing in mind the existing international conventions relevant to the present Convention, Aiming to fulfil the objectives of the Charter of the League of Arab States, and the Charter and Constitution of the Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization, Have agreed as follows: Article I DEFINITIONS For the purposes of this Convention and its Protocols, the following terms and expressions have the meanings indicated below, except when otherwise inferred from the text: 1. "Conservation" of the marine environment of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden: Rational use by man of living and non-living marine and coastal resources in a manner ensuring optimum benefit for the present generation while maintaining the potential of that environment to satisfy the needs and aspirations of future generations. Such a definition of the term "conservation" should be construed as including conservation protection, maintenance, sustainable and renewable utilization, and enhancement of the environment. 2. "Sea Area": Sea Area as defined in article II of this Convention. 3. "Marine pollution": Introduction by man, directly or indirectly, of substances or energy into the marine environment which results or is likely to result in such deleterious effects as harm to living resources, hazards to human health hindrance to marine activities including fishing, impairment of quality for use of sea water and reduction of amenities. 4. "Ships and aircraft": Any waterborne or airborne or amphibious craft of any type whatsoever, including hydrofoil boats, air cushion vehicles submersibles, floating craft whether self-propelled or not, and fixed or floating platforms and any other structure. 5. "Oil": Petroleum in any form including crude oil, fuel oil, sludge, refined oil, gases and other oil products, whose introduction might impair the marine environment. 6. "Harmful substance": Any substance whose introduction or presence in the marine environment causes a danger threatening or impairing that environment. 7. "National Authority": The authority designated by each Contracting Party as responsible for the coordination of national efforts for implementing this Convention and its protocols. 8. "ALECSO": The Arab League Educational Cultural and Scientific Organization. 9. "Organization": The Regional Organization for the Conservation of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden Environment established in accordance with article XVI of this Convention. 10. "Council": The Council established in accordance with article XVI of this Convention. 11. "General Secretariat": The organ of the Organization established in accordance with article XVI of this Convention. 12. "Action Plan": The Action Plan for the Conservation of the Marine Environment and Coastal Areas of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. Article II GEOGRAPHICAL COVERAGE The present Convention shall apply to the entire sea area, taking into account integrated ecosystems of the Red Sea, Gulf of Aqaba, Gulf of Suez, Suez Canal to its end on the Mediterranean, and the Gulf of Aden as bounded by the following rhumb lines: 1. From Ras Dharbat Ali (lat. 16d*39' N, long. 53d*03.5' E), thence to a point (lat. 16d*00' N, long. 53d*25' E), thence to a point (lat. 12d*40' N, long. 55d*00' E) lying ENE of Socotra Island, thence to Ras Hafun (lat. 10d*26' N, long. 51d*25' E). 2. Any Contracting Party may request the Organization to include areas within that Party's national jurisdiction and lying adjacent to those described in paragraph 1 above within the area of application of this Convention or for the purposes of activities resulting therefrom. 3. The geographical coverage does not include internal waters of the Contracting Parties unless otherwise stated in this Convention or any of its protocols. Article III GENERAL OBLIGATIONS 1. The Contracting Parties shall, individually or jointly, take all appropriate measures, in accordance with the present Convention and those protocols in force to which they are party, for the conservation of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden environment including the prevention, abatement and combating of marine pollution. 2. In addition to the Protocol concerning Regional Co-operation in Combating Pollution by Oil and other Harmful Substances in Cases of Emergency, the Contracting Parties shall co-operate in the formulation and adoption of other protocols prescribing agreed measures, procedures and standards for the implementation of this Convention. 3. The Contracting Parties shall establish national standards, laws and regulations as required for the effective discharge of the obligation prescribed in paragraph 1 of this article, and shall endeavour to harmonize their national policies in this regard and for this purpose appoint the National Authority. 4. The Contracting Parties shall co-operate with the competent international, regional and sub-regional organizations to establish and adopt regional standards, recommended practices and procedures for the conservation of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden environment, including the prevention, abatement and combating of pollution from all sources in conformity with the objectives of the present Convention, and to assist each other in fulfilling their obligations under the present Convention. 5. The Contracting Parties shall use their best endeavours to ensure that the implementation of the present Convention shall not cause transformation of one type or form of pollution to another which could be more detrimental to the environment. Article IV POLLUTION FROM SHIPS The Contracting Parties shall take all appropriate measures in conformity with the present Convention and with generally recognized international rules to prevent, abate and combat pollution in the Sea Area caused by intentional or accidental discharges from ships and shall ensure effective compliance in the Sea Area with generally recognized international rules relating to the control of this type of pollution including load-on-top, segregated ballast and crude oil washing procedures for tankers. Article V POLLUTION CAUSED BY DUMPING FROM SHIPS AND AIRCRAFT The Contracting Parties shall take all appropriate measures to prevent, abate and combat pollution in the Sea Area caused by dumping of wastes and other matter from ships and aircraft, and shall ensure effective compliance in the Sea Area with generally recognized international rules relating to the control of this type of pollution as provided for in relevant international conventions. Article VI POLLUTION FROM LAND-BASED SOURCES The Contracting Parties shall take all appropriate measures to prevent, abate and combat pollution caused by discharges from land reaching internal waters and the Sea Area whether water-borne, airborne or directly from the coast including outfalls and pipelines. Article VII POLLUTION RESULTING FROM EXPLORATION AND EXPLOITATION OF THE BED OF THE TERRITORIAL SEA, THE CONTINENTAL SHELF AND THE SUB-SOIL THEREOF The Contracting Parties shall take all appropriate measures to prevent, abate and combat pollution in the Sea Area resulting from exploration and exploitation of the bed of the territorial sea, the continental shelf and the sub-soil thereof, including the prevention of accidents and the combating of pollution emergencies resulting in damage to the marine environment. Article VIII POLLUTION FROM OTHER HUMAN ACTIVITIES The Contracting Parties shall take all appropriate measures to prevent, abate and combat pollution in the Sea Area resulting from land reclamation (and associated suction dredging and coastal dredging) or resulting from estuarine or river dredging or from other human activities. Article IX CO-OPERATION IN DEALING WITH POLLUTION EMERGENCIES 1. The Contracting Parties shall, individually or jointly, take all necessary measures, including those to ensure that adequate equipment and qualified personnel are readily available, to deal with pollution emergencies in the Sea Area, whatever the cause of such emergencies, and to reduce or eliminate damage resulting therefrom. 2. Any Contracting Party which becomes aware of any pollution emergency in the Sea Area shall without delay, notify the Organization, and through the General Secretariat, any Contracting Party likely to be affected by such emergency. 3. The Contracting Parties shall co-ordinate their national plans for combating pollution in the marine environment by oil and other harmful substances in a manner that facilitates full co-operation in dealing with pollution emergencies. Article X SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL CO-OPERATION 1. The Contracting Parties shall co-operate directly, or through competent international and regional organizations, in the fields of scientific research, monitoring, assessment and combating of pollution in the Sea Area, and shall exchange data as well as other scientific information for the purpose of the present Convention, its protocols and the action plan. 2. The Contracting Parties shall co-operate further to develop and co-ordinate national monitoring and research programmes concerning all types of pollution and pollution combating, as well as studies and research on the marine environment. They shall co-operate further to develop and co-ordinate necessary supporting programmes, such as marine- meteorology programmes, and to establish, in cooperation with competent regional or international organizations, a regional network of such programmes to ensure compatible results. For this purpose, each Contracting Party shall designate the National Authority responsible for environmental research and monitoring and for marine meteorological monitoring within the areas under its national jurisdiction. 3. The Organization and ALECSO shall cooperate in matters of common interest for the purpose of mutual co-ordination and exchange of technical assistance, information and documents. Article XI ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT 1. Each Contracting Party shall give due consideration to marine environmental effects when planning or executing projects, including an assessment of potential environmental effects, particularly in the coastal areas. 2. The Contracting Parties may, in consultation with the General Secretariat, develop procedures for dissemination of information on the assessment of the activities referred to in paragraph 1 of this article. 3. The Contracting Parties undertake to develop, individually or jointly environmental standards technical and other guidelines in accordance with standard scientific practice to assist the planning and execution of their projects in such a way as to minimize their harmful impact on the marine environment. In this regard international standards may be used where appropriate. Article XII TECHNICAL AND OTHER ASSISTANCE The Contracting Parties shall co-operate, directly or through competent regional or international organizations, in the development of programmes of technical and other assistance, in fields relating to the marine environment and its conservation in coordination with the Organization. Article XIII LIABILITY AND COMPENSATION The Contracting Parties undertake to co-operate in the formulation and adoption of appropriate rules and procedures for the determination of: 1. Civil liability and compensation for damage resulting from pollution of the marine environment bearing in mind applicable international rules and procedures relating to those matters; and 2. Liability and compensation for damage resulting from violation of obligations under the present Convention and its protocols. Article XIV SOVEREIGN IMMUNITY 1. Warships and other ships owned or operated by a State, and used only on government non-commercial service, shall be exempted from the application of the provisions of the present Convention. 2. Subject to paragraph 1 above, each Contracting Party shall, as far as possible, ensure that its warships or other ships owned or operated by that Party, and used only on government non-commercial service, shall comply with the provisions of the present Convention. Article XV DISCLAIMER Nothing in the present Convention shall prejudice or affect the rights or claims of any Contracting Party with regard to the nature or extent of its maritime jurisdiction which may be established in conformity with international law. Article XVI REGIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR THE CONSERVATION OF THE RED SEA AND GULF OF ADEN ENVIRONMENT 1. A Regional Organization for the Conservation of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden Environment, the permanent headquarters of which shall be located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, is hereby established. 2. The Organization shall consist of the following organs: (a) A Council comprised of a representative of each Contracting Party; (b) A General Secretariat; (c) A Committee for the Settlement of Disputes whose composition, terms of reference and rules of procedure shall be decided by the Council. 3. The Organization shall enjoy, in the territory of each Contracting Party, all legal qualifications necessary for the discharge of its duties and the performance of all activities concerned with the achievement of its aims. Article XVII THE COUNCIL 1. (a) Membership of the Council shall be made up of the Contracting Parties, each Contracting Party having one vote in the meetings of the Council. (b) Meetings of the Council shall be attended by the Director General of ALECSO or his delegate. 2. The Council shall hold one ordinary meeting every year, and may hold extraordinary meetings in accordance with its rules of procedure. Meetings shall be convened at the headquarters of the Organization or at any place as prescribed by its internal regulations or by the Council. The Chairmanship of the Council shall be given to each Contracting Party, in turn, in the Arabic alphabetical order starting with the Depositary State. The term of office of the Chairman shall be one year. 3. Two thirds of the Council membership shall constitute a quorum for its meetings. 4. The voting procedure in the Council shall be as follows: (a) Decisions on important matters shall be taken by a unanimous vote of the Contracting Parties present and voting; (b) Decisions on procedural matters shall be taken by a two-thirds majority vote of the Contracting Parties present and voting. Article XVIII DUTIES AND FUNCTIONS OF THE COUNCIL The Council shall have the duties and functions necessary to achieve the objectives of this Convention and its protocols, and in particular: (a) To adopt its internal regulations; (b) To keep under review the implementation of the Convention and its protocols, and the action plan adopted for the achievement of the purposes of this Convention and its protocols; (c) To make recommendations regarding the adoption of any additional protocols or any amendments to the Convention or to its protocols; (d) To adopt, review and amend, as required, the annexes to this Convention and to its protocols; (e) To adopt and conclude agreements with States or with organizations with similar purposes or interests within the aims of this Convention and for the achievement of its purposes and which the Council deems necessary for the discharge of its duties; (f) To review and evaluate the state of the marine environment and coastal areas on the basis of reports provided by the Contracting Parties, or by the international organizations concerned; (g) To establish subsidiary bodies and ad hoc working groups, as required, to consider any matters related to this Convention and its protocols or related to the annexes of this Convention and its protocols or related to the action plan; (h) To consider reports submitted by the Contracting Parties and reports prepared by the General Secretariat on questions relating to the Convention and to matters relevant to the administration of the Organization and to decide upon them; (i) To endeavour to settle any differences or disputes between the Contracting Parties as to the interpretation or implementation of this Convention or its protocols or annexes; (j) To appoint the Secretary General; (k) To adopt and issue its rules of procedure, administrative and financial regulations guided by the constitution and regulations of ALECSO. The Council may adopt or amend any other regulations necessary for the discharge of its duties; (l) To adopt the financial rules which determine, in particular, the contributions of the Contracting Parties; (m) To adopt the financial budget of the Organization; (n) To adopt the projects and budgets for the Organization activities; (o) To approve a report on the work and activities of the Organization to be submitted for information to the ALECSO General Conference; (p) To define and develop relations between the Organization and Arab organizations or bodies; (q) To perform any additional functions necessary for the achievement of the purposes of this Convention and its protocols or which the Council deems necessary for the discharge of its duties. Article XIX THE GENERAL SECRETARIAT 1. The Secretary General shall head the General Secretariat and perform the functions necessary for the management of the Convention and its protocols, annexes, the action plan and the work of the General Secretariat; 2. The General Secretariat shall have the duties and powers necessary to achieve the purposes of this Convention and its protocols and to execute the action plan, according to decisions of the Council, and in particular: (a) To prepare for and convene the meetings of the Council and its subsidiary bodies and ad hoc working groups; (b) To transmit to the Contracting Parties notifications, reports and other information received; (c) To consider inquiries by, and information from, the Contracting Parties and to consult with them on questions relating to this Convention and its protocols, annexes and the action plan; (d) To prepare and submit reports on matters relating to this Convention, its protocols, annexes and the action plan or relating to the administration of the Organization; (e) To establish, maintain and disseminate an up-to-date collection of national laws concerning the conservation of the marine environment of all Contracting Parties; (f) To provide technical assistance and advice for the drafting of appropriate national legislation for the effective implementation of this Convention and its protocols; (g) To organize and co-ordinate training programmes in areas related to the implementation of this Convention, its protocols and the action plan; (h) To perform such other functions as may be assigned to it by the Council for the implementation of this Convention, its protocols and the action plan. Article XX BUDGET AND FINANCIAL RESOURCES OF THE ORGANIZATION 1. The Organization shall have its own budget. 2. The financial resources of the Organization shall consist of: (a) Contributions by the Contracting Parties; (b) ALECSO contribution; (c) Other contributions accepted by the Council. 3. Reports on the budget of the Organization shall be transmitted to the ALECSO General Conference for information. Article XXI ADOPTION AND AMENDMENTS OF THE CONVENTION AND ITS PROTOCOLS The Council, or any Contracting Party may propose amendments to this Convention, its protocols or annexes. Amendments of importance shall be adopted by a unanimous vote of the Contracting Parties. Other amendments shall be adopted by a two-thirds majority. Any matter is considered important if so requested by one Contracting Party. Amendments shall enter into force when adopted by the Contracting Parties in accordance with articles XXVI and XXVII of this Convention. Article XXII REPORTS Each Contracting Party shall submit to the General Secretariat reports on measures taken for the implementation of this Convention and its protocols, in such form and at such intervals as may be determined by the Council. Article XXIII COMPLIANCE CONTROL The Contracting Parties shall co-operate in the development and implementation of procedures for the effective application of the Convention and its protocols, including detection of violations, using all appropriate and practicable measures of detection and environmental monitoring, including adequate procedures for reporting and accumulation of evidence. Article XXIV SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES 1. In case of a dispute as to the interpretation or application of this Convention, its protocols or its annexes, the Contracting Parties concerned shall seek a settlement of the dispute through amicable means. 2. If the Contracting Parties concerned cannot settle the dispute, the matter shall be referred to the Council for its consideration. 3. If the Council does not reach a settlement of the dispute, it shall be submitted to the Committee for the Settlement of Disputes referred to in paragraph 2(c) of article XVI of this Convention. Article XXV SIGNATURE The present Convention together with the attached Protocol shall be open for signature in Jeddah by Governments of the States of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden invited to the Jeddah Regional Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Conservation of the Marine Environment and Coastal Areas in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden convened from 19 to 21 Rabie Althani A.H. 1402, corresponding to 13 to 15 February 1982. Article XXVI RATIFICATION, ACCEPTANCE, APPROVAL OR ACCESSION 1. The present Convention together with the attached Protocol shall be subject to ratification, acceptance, approval or accession by the States referred to in article XXV of this Convention. Any Contracting Party which has ratified, accepted, approved or acceded to the present Convention shall be considered as having ratified, accepted, approved or acceded to the attached Protocol. 2. Any State member of the Arab League has the right to accede to the present Convention and its protocols. Article XXVII ENTRY INTO FORCE 1. The present Convention and the attached Protocol shall enter into force on the ninetieth day following the date of deposit of at least four instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval of, or accession to, the Convention. 2. Any other protocol to this Convention, except as otherwise provided in such protocol, shall enter into force on the thirtieth day following the date of deposit of at least four instruments of ratification acceptance or approval of, or accession to such protocol. 3. This Convention or any such protocol shall enter into force with respect to any Contracting Party on the thirtieth day following the date of deposit by that Contracting Party of its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession. Article XXVIII WITHDRAWAL 1. At any time after five years from the date of entry into force of this Convention, any Contracting Party may withdraw from this Convention by giving written notification of withdrawal to the Depositary. 2. Except as may be otherwise provided in any other protocol to this Convention, any Contracting Party may, at any time after five years from the date of entry into force of such protocol, withdraw from such protocol by giving written notification of withdrawal to the Depositary. 3. Withdrawal shall take effect twelve months after the date on which notification of withdrawal is received by the Depositary. 4. Any Contracting Party which withdraws from the Convention shall be considered as also having withdrawn from any protocol to which it was a party. 5. Any Contracting Party which withdraws from the Protocol concerning Regional Co-operation in Combating Pollution by Oil and other Harmful Substances in Cases of Emergency shall be considered as also having withdrawn from this Convention. Article XXIX RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE DEPOSITARY 1. The Depositary shall receive instruments of ratification of this Convention and its protocols. 2. The Depositary shall call the first meeting of the Council when this Convention enters into force after ratification by four Contracting Parties. 3. After the first meeting of the Council the General Secretariat shall assume all technical and administrative responsibilities and duties. The original of this Convention, of any protocol thereto, of any annex to the Convention or to a protocol, or of any amendment to this Convention, to a protocol or to an annex of the Convention or of a protocol shall be deposited with the Depositary, the Government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, which shall send certified copies thereof to the Contracting Parties and shall also deposit certified copies of the Convention, its protocols and annexes with the General Secretariat of the League of Arab States in accordance with article 17 of the Arab League Charter and with the Secretary-General of the United Nations in accordance with Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations. In witness whereof the undersigned Plenipotentiaries, being duly authorized by their respective Governments, have signed the present Convention. Done at the City of Jeddah on Sunday the twentieth of the month Rabie Althani of the year A.H. 1402, corresponding to 14 Shabat (February) of the year A.D. 1982. PROTOCOL CONCERNING REGIONAL CO-OPERATION IN COMBATING POLLUTION BY OIL AND OTHER HARMFUL SUBSTANCES IN CASES OF EMERGENCY (1982) Jeddah, 14 February 1982 The Contracting Parties, Being Parties to the Regional Convention for the Conservation of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden Environment (hereinafter referred to as "the Convention"), Conscious of the ever-present potentiality of emergencies which may result in substantial pollution by oil and other harmful substances, and of the need to provide co-operative and effective measures to deal with them, Being aware that appropriate measures for responding to pollution emergencies need to be enhanced on a national and regional basis to deal with this problem in a comprehensive manner for the benefit of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden environment, Have agreed as follows: Article I For the purposes of this Protocol the following terms and expressions have the meanings indicated below, except when otherwise inferred from the text: 1. "Appropriate Authority": either the "National Authority" defined in article I of the Convention, or the authority or authorities within the Government of a Contracting Party, designated by the National Authority and responsible for: (a) Combating or otherwise operationally responding to marine emergencies; (b) Receiving and co-ordinating information on marine emergencies; (c) Co-ordinating available national capabilities for dealing with marine emergencies in general within its own Government and with other Contracting Parties. 2. "Marine Emergency": any casualty, incident, occurrence or situation, however caused, resulting in substantial pollution or imminent threat of substantial pollution to the marine environment by oil or other harmful substances and includes collisions, strandings and other incidents involving ships, including tankers, blow-outs arising from petroleum drilling and production activities, and the presence of oil or other harmful substances arising from the failure of industrial installations. 3. "Marine Emergency Contingency Plan": a plan or plans, prepared on a national, bilateral or multilateral basis, designed to co-ordinate the deployment, allocation and use of personnel, material, resources and equipment for the purpose of responding to marine emergencies. 4. "Marine Emergency Response": any activity intended to prevent, mitigate or eliminate pollution by oil or other harmful substances or threat of such pollution resulting from marine emergencies. 5. "Related Interests": the interests of a Contracting Party directly or indirectly affected or threatened by a marine emergency such as: (a) Maritime, coastal, port or estuary activities, including fisheries activities; (b) Historic and tourist attractions; (c) The health of the coastal population and the conservation of living marine resources and of wildlife; (d) Industrial activities which rely upon intake of water, including distillation plants, and industrial plants using circulating water. 6. "Convention": the Regional Convention for the Conservation of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden Environment. 7. "Council": the organ of the Regional Organization for Conservation of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden Environment established under article XVI of the Convention. 8. "Centre": the Marine Emergency Mutual Aid Centre established under article III, paragraph 1, of the present Protocol. Article II 1. The Contracting Parties shall co-operate in taking the necessary and effective measures to protect the coastline and related interests of one or more of the Parties from the threat and effects of pollution due to the presence of oil or other harmful substances in the marine environment resulting from marine emergencies. 2. The Contracting Parties shall endeavour to maintain and promote, either individually or through bilateral or multilateral co-operation, their contingency plans and means for combating pollution in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden by oil and other harmful substances. These means shall include in particular, available equipment, ships, aircraft and manpower prepared for operation in cases of emergency. Article III 1. The Contracting Parties hereby establish the Marine Emergency Mutual Aid Centre. 2. The objectives of the Centre shall be: (a) To strengthen the capacities of the Contracting Parties and to facilitate co-operation among them in order to combat pollution by oil and other harmful substances in cases of marine emergencies; (b) To assist Contracting Parties, which so request, in the development of their own national capabilities to combat pollution by oil and other harmful substances and to co-ordinate and facilitate information exchange, technological co-operation and training; (c) A later objective, namely, the possibility of initiating operations to combat pollution by oil and other harmful substances at the regional level, may be considered. This possibility should be submitted to approval by the Council after evaluating the results achieved in the fulfilment of the previous objectives and in the light of financial resources which could be made available for this purpose. 3. The functions of the Centre shall be: (a) To collect and disseminate to the Contracting Parties information concerning matters covered by this Protocol, including: (i) Laws, regulations and information concerning appropriate authorities of the Contracting Parties and marine emergency contingency plans referred to in article V of this Protocol; (ii) Information available to the Contracting Parties concerning methods, techniques and research relating to marine emergency responses referred to in article VI of this Protocol- and (iii) List of experts, equipment and materials available for marine emergency responses by the Contracting Parties; (b) To assist the Contracting Parties, as requested: (i) In the preparation of laws and regulations concerning matters covered by this Protocol and in the establishment of appropriate authorities; (ii) In the preparation of marine emergency contingency plans; (iii) In the establishment of procedures under which personnel, equipment and materials involved in marine emergency responses may be expeditiously transported into, out of, and through the territories of the Contracting Parties; (iv) In the transmission to the Contracting Parties of reports concerning marine emergencies; and (v) In promoting and developing training programmes for combating pollution; (c) To co-ordinate training programmes for combating pollution and prepare comprehensive anti-pollution manuals; (d) To develop and maintain a communication/information system appropriate to the needs of the Contracting Parties and the Centre for the prompt exchange of information concerning marine emergencies required by this Protocol; (e) To prepare inventories of the available personnel, materials, vessels, aircraft, and other specialized equipment for marine emergency responses; (f) To establish and maintain liaison with competent regional and international organizations, particularly the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization for the purposes of obtaining and exchanging scientific and technological information and data, particularly with regard to any new technology which may assist the Centre in the performance of its functions; (g) To prepare periodic reports on marine emergencies for submission to the Council; and (h) To perform any other functions assigned to it either by this Protocol or by the Council. 4. The Centre may fulfil additional functions necessary for initiating operations to combat pollution by oil and other harmful substances on a regional level, when authorized by the Council, in accordance with paragraph 2(c) above. Article IV 1. The present Protocol shall apply to the Sea Area specified in paragraph 1 of article II of the Convention. 2. For the purposes of dealing with a marine emergency, internal waters, including ports, harbours, estuaries, bays and lagoons, may be treated as part of the Sea Area if the Contracting Party concerned so decides. Article V Each Contracting Party shall provide the Centre and the other Contracting Parties with information concerning: (a) Its appropriate authority; (b) Its laws, regulations, and other legal instruments relating generally to matters addressed in this Protocol, including those concerning the structure and operation of the authority referred to in paragraph (a) above; (c) Its national marine emergency contingency plans. Article VI Each Contracting Party shall provide the other Contracting Parties and the Centre with information concerning: (a) Existing and new methods, techniques, materials, and procedures relating to marine emergency responses; (b) Existing and planned research, their results and development in the areas referred to in paragraph (a) above. Article VII 1. Each Contracting Party shall direct its appropriate officials to require masters of ships pilots of aircraft and persons in charge of offshore platforms and other similar structures operating in the marine environment and under its jurisdiction to report the existence of any marine emergency in the Sea Area to the appropriate national authority and to the Centre. 2. Any Contracting Party receiving a report pursuant to paragraph 1 above shall promptly inform the following of the marine emergency: (a) The Centre; (b) All other Contracting Parties; (c) The flag State of any foreign ship involved in the marine emergency concerned. 3. The content of the reports, including supplementary reports where appropriate, referred to in paragraph 1 above should conform to the form to be adopted by the Centre. 4. Any Contracting Party which submits a report pursuant to paragraphs 2 (a) and 2 (b) above, shall be exempted from the obligations specified in paragraph 2 of article IX of the Convention. Article VIII The Centre shall promptly transmit information and reports which it receives from a Contracting Party pursuant to articles V, VI and paragraph 2 of article VII of this Protocol to all other Contracting Parties. Article IX Any Contracting Party which transmits information pursuant to this Protocol may specifically restrict its dissemination. In such a case, any Contracting Party to which this information has been transmitted, or the Centre, shall not divulge it to any other person, Government, or to any public or private organization without the specific authorization of the former Contracting Party. Article X Any Contracting Party faced with a marine emergency situation shall: (a) Take every appropriate measure to combat pollution and/or to rectify the situation; (b) Immediately inform all other Contracting Parties, either directly or through the Centre, of any action which it has taken or intends to take to combat the pollution. The Centre shall promptly transmit any such information to all other Contracting Parties; (c) Make an assessment of the nature and extent of the marine emergency, either directly or with the assistance of the Centre; (d) Determine the necessary and appropriate action to be taken with respect to the marine emergency, in consultation with other Contracting Parties, affected States and the Centre. Article XI 1. Any Contracting Party requiring assistance in a marine emergency response may call for assistance directly from any other Contracting Party or through the Centre. Where the services of the Centre are utilized, the Centre shall promptly transmit requests received to all other Contracting Parties. The Contracting Parties to whom a request is made pursuant to this paragraph shall use their best endeavours within their capabilities to render the assistance requested. 2. The assistance referred to in paragraph 1 above may include: (a) Personnel, material, and equipment, including facilities or methods for the disposal of recovered pollutants; (b) Surveillance and monitoring capacity; (c) Facilitation of the transfer of personnel material, and equipment into, out of and through the territories of the Contracting Parties. 3. The services of the Centre may be utilized by the Contracting Parties to co-ordinate any marine emergency response in which assistance is called for pursuant to paragraph 1 above. 4. Any Contracting Party calling for assistance pursuant to paragraph 1 above shall report the activities undertaken with this assistance and its results to the Centre. The Centre shall promptly transmit any such report to all other Contracting Parties. 5. In cases of special marine emergencies, the Centre may call for the mobilization of resources made available by the Contracting Parties to combat pollution by oil and other harmful substances. Article XII 1. Having due regard to the functions assigned to the Centre under this Protocol, each Contracting Party shall establish and maintain an appropriate authority to carry out fully its obligations under this Protocol. With the assistance of the Centre, the appropriate authority of each Contracting Party shall co-operate and co-ordinate its activities with counterparts in the other Contracting Parties. 2. Among other matters with respect to which cooperation and co-ordination efforts shall be directed under paragraph 1 above are the following: (a) Distribution and allocation of stocks of materials and equipment; (b) Training of personnel for marine emergency responses; (c) Marine pollution surveillance and monitoring activities; (d) Methods of communication in respect of marine emergencies; (e) Facilitation of the transfer of personnel, equipment and materials involved in marine emergency responses into, out of, and through the territories of the Contracting Parties; (f) Other matters to which this Protocol applies. Article XIII The Council shall: (a) Review periodically the activities of the Centre performed under this Protocol; (b) Decide on the degree to which, and stages by which, the functions of the Centre set out in article III will be implemented; (c) Determine the financial, administrative and other support to be provided by the Contracting Parties to the Centre for the performance of its functions. This Protocol, considered an integral part of the Convention, shall be deposited with the Government of Saudi Arabia who shall act as Depositary pursuant to article XXIX of the Convention and who shall transmit certified copies of it to the Contracting Parties. Certified copies of this Protocol shall be deposited, together with the Convention, with the General Secretariat of the League of Arab States in accordance with article 17 of the Charter of the Arab League and registered with the Secretary-General of the United Nations in accordance with Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations. In witness whereof the undersigned Plenipotentiaries, being duly authorized by their respective Governments, have signed this Protocol. Done at the City of Jeddah on Sunday the twentieth of the month Rabie Althani of the year A.H. 1402, corresponding to 14 Shabat (February) of the year A.D. 1982.