The Argentine Meteorological Service (SMN) was actively engaged in the diffusion of atmospheric ozone topics and in promoting their study, aiming to increase the awareness in political and scientific communities. The actions of the SMN were strongly supported by the Environment Division, External Affairs Ministry and by the Environment Division, WMO.
I. ARGENTINE METEOROLOGICAL SERVICE - TECHNICAL
1. South Cone Ozone Project (SCO3P)
The Canela document, signed in 1922 by Argentina, Brazil, Chile Paraguay and Uruguay led to the development of the SCO3P. The project involves the installation of a network for measuring stratospheric ozone, surface ozone, solar radiation, specially UV and meteorological parameters. IT is sponsored by WMO and GEF within the GAW program. Meteorological observatories at Observatory Central Buenos Aires, La Quiaca Comodoro Rivadavia, Ushuaia, Marambio, Pilar, San Julian and Cerro de la Cruz were upgraded and personnel adequately trained to this purpose. The first six ones are currently in operation. Canada gave support for the first instruments' installations. Data obtained are sent to the World Centers and their inclusion in INTERNET is planed for June,96.
The SMN is responsible of training O3 and UV radiation observers and of the ozone and solar radiation data collection. Uruguay and Paraguay personnel have already being trained and assistance given for the instrument's installation. Two courses and a workshop on UV radiation, sponsored by WMO were given at Buenos Aires.
2. Long record Dobson observations and ozonosonding
Observatorio Central Buenos Aires is measuring ozone since 1966. Marambio has a Dobson observations record since 1987. There, an ozonesonding program, in cooperation with the Finish Meteorological Institute, started in late 1989, providing regular ozone profiles. During the ozone hole episodes, higher frequency launchings are undertake. Data are sent to the World Center, Toronto.
3. GAW baseline station
Ushuaia VAG station is part of the network of baseline GAW stations (GEF) and is in operation since September, 94, when Dobson measurements began.
4. Information diffusion
Lic L . Nuñez
Information produced by WMO on the ozone layer depletion and on UV solar radiation is distributed to the region. Data from Argentine stations is also included, specially, during the ozone hole episodes.
5. UV solar radiation intensity forecast.
Lic. G. Talamoni, Lic. L. Nuñez
The UV intensity forecast is produced for chosen sites at Argentina and Uruguay, during spring, summer and autumn. Presently those forecast are being checked against data. Other institutions participate in the modification the model to include the local characteristics, see V.
II. CENTER OF THE TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH OF THE ARMED
FORCES (CITEFA) -CEILAP-CONICET
1. Chemical reactions related to atmospheric studies.
Dr M. L. Azcerate
The CEILAP laboratory is dealing with studies of photochemical reactions of species connected with the ozone depletion in the stratosphere. The reactions between CF2CI and O3 are studied by laser techniques.
2. LIDAR ozone layer measurement
Dr. E Quel
A LIDAR-DIAL system is under construction for stratospheric O3 profile measurement, using XeCI and Nd-YAG lasers. Since 1994, a LIDAR (at 532 nm) is being used for boundary layer, clouds and aerosol studies.
III. NATIONAL DIRECTION OF THE ANTARCTIC (DNA)-
Argentine Antarctic Institute
Lic C. Caseneuve
Stratospheric ozone measurement
One Brewer spectrophotometer is continuously operated at Belgrano and another at CADIC, Ushuaia, from September to December, both in collaboration with the Atmospheric Physics Institute, IFA, Research National Council, Italy. NO2 and O3 are measured, at Marambio and Belgrano, in collaboration with National Aerospace Technical Institute of Spain .
IV. UNIVERSITY OF MENDOZA - Institute for the Study of the
Atmospheric radiometric and spectrometric measurements
Dr. E. Puliaffitto
IEMA is measuring stratospheric ozone profiles at 15-45 km, in collaboration with the Max-Planck Institute for Aeronomy, since 1993. Liquid water and tropospheric water vapor are also measured, intensive measuring campaign included CIO and N20. Since 1994, surface ozone is continuously measured at Mendoza city.
V. ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATORY AND PHYSICS INSTITUTE OF
ROSARIO - CONICET-National University of Rosario
1. UV solar radiation modeling
Dr R Piacentini
UV solar radiation, ozone layer at low and middle latitudes in South America and UV-B solar irradiances and erithema and carcinogenic doses, at different sites of Argentina and Chile, models are developed in collaboration with NASA and the University of Córdoba.
2. UV solar intensity
Dr R Piacentini
Participation in uv radiation forecast produced by the SMN, see 1.2
VI. NATIONAL SPACE ACTIVITIES COMMISSION ESTRATEOLE-
Ing. D. Gestal
This project objective will be the study of the stratospheric Antarctic vortex dynamics and its interaction with the ozone chemistry, at late winter and spring. The project is under the leadership of the French Space Agency. Balloons will be deploy to measure ozone, water vapor, and other parameters. Ushuaia and Marambio will be launching bases. During 1995, preliminary mayor aerology launching tests were made from Ushuaia.
VII. HEALTH MINISTRY - HEALTH PROMOTION AND
Subprogram: Ozone layer and health.
Dr. N. del Punta
This program a) evaluates the population perception at the federal capital and in the southern Patagonia, b) prepares information diffusion material, standardization of solar screens and determination of a provisional UV-B index-solar erithema, c) evaluates available information on pathologies eventually connected with solar radiation, d) makes prevention campaigns in recreation areas.
VIII. UNIVERSITY OF LA PLATA - Optical Research Center - CIC-
Ozone measurement equipment development
Dr. J. Tocho
A network of 16 of portable simple O3 measuring instruments operates since late l994 in Argentina and Chile. Total O3 is calculated from direct solar irradiance data between 300-313 nm. Results are within the 5% of satellite data for clear days.
IX. UNIVERSITY OF BUENOS AIRES - Meteorology Department
Behavior and variability of the middle atmosphere
Dr. P. Canziani
The middle atmosphere group studies the behavior and variability of the middle atmosphere and ozone layer at SH middle latitude related with tropical and polar processes, and the impacts on climate and biosphere. Data from the upper atmosphere research satellite, TOMS and others are used, along with observations from surface of atmospheric variables and UV radiation, in collaboration with University of Washington.
X. NATIONAL COUNCIL OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL
Scientific Research Austral Center-CADIC
UV solar radiation
Ing. S. Diaz
a. Since Nov. 1988, UV solar radiation is monitored over Ushuaia using a spectroradiometer, at CADIC, within the POLE program network (McMurdo, South Pole, Palmer, Barrow and San Diego) by an agreement CONICET-NSF. This network monitors UV radiation and its relationship with stratospheric ozone depletion. Results are published in international journals; the laboratory also collaborates with the University of Chicago.
b. Stratospheric ozone and NO2 are monitored by agreement between CADIC-INTA-DNA, at CADIC. A spectral instrument for total O3 and NO2 column is used.
c. Ozone and UV radiation measurements are made with a Brewer spectrophotometer during campaigns, by an agreement IFA-DNA-CADIC, see III.
d. Development of an irradiation system for biological structures, in collaboration with Federal University of Patagonia, to simulate solar spectra corresponding to different latitude and ozone concentrations.
e. Participation in the project: Terrestrial Ecosystem Consequence of Ozone Depletion in Southernmost South America. CADIC-University of Utah- University of Buenos Aires. The objective is to study the possible effects of UV radiation changes due to stratospheric ozone depletion on vegetal terrestrial ecosystems.
f. Since 1992, studies on red tide at the Beagle Channel dependency with UV solar radiation as a secondary factor, in collaboration with INIDEP.
g. Collaboration with the Catholic University of Chile, Valdivia, were as part of a WMO network, a similar spectroradiometer is going to operate.